Project description:In the event of a terrorist-mediated attack in the United States using radiological or improvised nuclear weapons, it is expected that hundreds of thousands of people could be exposed to life-threatening levels of ionizing radiation. We have recently shown that genome-wide expression analysis of the peripheral blood (PB) can generate gene expression profiles that can predict radiation exposure and distinguish the dose level of exposure following total body irradiation (TBI). However, in the event a radiation-mass casualty scenario, many victims will have heterogeneous exposure due to partial shielding and it is unknown whether PB gene expression profiles would be useful in predicting the status of partially irradiated individuals. Here, we identified gene expression profiles in the PB that were characteristic of anterior hemibody-, posterior hemibody- and single limb-irradiation at 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy in C57Bl6 mice. These PB signatures predicted the radiation status of partially irradiated mice with a high level of accuracy (range 79-100%) compared to non-irradiated mice. Interestingly, PB signatures of partial body irradiation were poorly predictive of radiation status by site of injury (range 16-43%), suggesting that the PB molecular response to partial body irradiation was anatomic site specific. Importantly, PB gene signatures generated from TBI-treated mice failed completely to predict the radiation status of partially irradiated animals or non-irradiated controls. These data demonstrate that partial body irradiation, even to a single limb, generates a characteristic PB signature of radiation injury and thus may necessitate the use of multiple signatures, both partial body and total body, to accurately assess the status of an individual exposed to radiation.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To identify key dosimetric parameters that have close associations with tumor treatment response and body weight change in SFRT treatments with a large range of spatial-fractionation scale at dose rates of several Gy/min.<h4>Methods</h4>Six study arms using uniform tumor radiation, half-tumor radiation, 2mm beam array radiation, 0.3mm minibeam radiation, and an untreated arm were used. All treatments were delivered on a 320kV x-ray irradiator. Forty-two female Fischer 344 rats with fibrosarcoma tumor allografts were used. Dosimetric parameters studied are peak dose and width, valley dose and width, peak-to-valley-dose-ratio (PVDR), volumetric average dose, percentage volume directly irradiated, and tumor- and normal-tissue EUD. Animal survival, tumor volume change, and body weight change (indicative of treatment toxicity) are tested for association with the dosimetric parameters using linear regression and Cox Proportional Hazards models.<h4>Results</h4>The dosimetric parameters most closely associated with tumor response are tumor EUD (R2 = 0.7923, F-stat = 15.26*; z-test = -4.07***), valley (minimum) dose (R2 = 0.7636, F-stat = 12.92*; z-test = -4.338***), and percentage tumor directly irradiated (R2 = 0.7153, F-stat = 10.05*; z-test = -3.837***) per the linear regression and Cox Proportional Hazards models, respectively. Tumor response is linearly proportional to valley (minimum) doses and tumor EUD. Average dose (R2 = 0.2745, F-stat = 1.514 (no sig.); z-test = -2.811**) and peak dose (R2 = 0.04472, F-stat = 0.6874 (not sig.); z-test = -0.786 (not sig.)) show the weakest associations to tumor response. Only the uniform radiation arm did not gain body weight post-radiation, indicative of treatment toxicity; however, body weight change in general shows weak association with all dosimetric parameters except for valley (minimum) dose (R2 = 0.3814, F-stat = 13.56**), valley width (R2 = 0.2853, F-stat = 8.783**), and peak width (R2 = 0.2759, F-stat = 8.382**).<h4>Conclusions</h4>For a single-fraction SFRT at conventional dose rates, valley, not peak, dose is closely associated with tumor treatment response and thus should be used for treatment prescription. Tumor EUD, valley (minimum) dose, and percentage tumor directly irradiated are the top three dosimetric parameters that exhibited close associations with tumor response.
Project description:We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo.C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 ?g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells.Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015).Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection against the harmful effects of LDR radiation.
Project description:Exposure to ionizing radiation leads to severe damages in radiosensitive organs and induces acute radiation syndrome, including effects on the hematopoietic system and gastrointestinal system. In this study, the radioprotective ability of KMRC011, a novel toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist, was investigated in C57BL6/N mice exposed to lethal total-body gamma-irradiation. In a 30-day survival study, KMRC011-treated mice had a significantly improved survival rate compared with control after 11 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), and it was found that the radioprotective activity of KMRC011 depended on its dosage and repeated treatment. In a 5-day short-term study, we demonstrated that KMRC011 treatment stimulated cell proliferation and had an anti-apoptotic effect. Furthermore, KMRC011 increased the expressions of genes related to DNA repair, such as Rad21, Gadd45b, Sod2 and Irg1, in the small intestine of lethally irradiated mice. Interestingly, downregulation of NF-κB p65 in the mouse intestine by KMRC011 treatment was observed. This data indicated that KMRC011 exerted a radioprotective activity partially by regulating NF-κB signaling. Finally, peak expression levels of G-CSF, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IP-10 induced by KMRC011 treatment were different depending on the route of administration and type of cytokine. These cytokines could be used as candidate biomarkers for the evaluation of KMRC011 clinical efficacy. Our data indicated that KMRC011 has radioprotective activity in lethally irradiated mice and may be developed as a therapeutic agent for radioprotection.
Project description:A tumor-selective non-lytic retroviral replicating vector (RRV), Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec), is being investigated in clinical trials in patients with recurrent high grade glioma (rHGG) (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01156584, NCT01470794, NCT01985256). Toca 511 encodes a modified yeast cytosine deaminase (CD), which converts oral prodrug 5-FC into the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) within infected tumor cells. Since 5-FU is a radiosensitizer, we investigated in preclinical models the combination of Toca 511, 5-FC and radiation for treatment of human HGG. U87 and radioresistent U87EGFRvIII cells were infected in vitro with Toca 511 and subsequently irradiated with 0, 3, 6 or 9 Gy. In non-irradiated and irradiated cells, RRV infected >95% of cells by day 21 showing that radiation does not perturb viral spread. In vitro clonogenic survival assays showed significant radiosensitization with 5-FC in RRV-infected U87EGFRvIII cells. For in vivo survival studies, U87EGFRvIII cells (5 x 10) were stereotactically implanted into athymic mouse brain and Toca 511 (10 Transducing Units) was injected intratumorally 4 days later. Mice were treated with a single cycle of intraperitoneal PBS or 5-FC (500 mg/kg) for 5 days from day 10 to 14, with or without irradiation (2 Gy/fr/day; total 10 Gy, or 4 Gy/fr/day; total 20 Gy). Mice treated with 20 Gy and a single cycle of 5-FC showed significantly longer survival compared with the other two groups (p<0.0001) and median survival was >75 days. Next, mice were treated with multiple cycles of PBS or 5-FC (intraperitoneal, 5 days every 2 weeks, 5 cycles) with or without irradiation at the lower dose (total 10 Gy). Mice treated with 10 Gy and 5 cycles of 5-FC showed significantly longer survival (p<0.0001) and median survival was >89 days. These efficacy data support clinical investigation of Toca 511 and 5-FC in combination with radiation in the first-line setting for patients with HGG.
Project description:CONTEXT:Accidental exposure to life-threatening radiation in a nuclear event is a major concern; there is an enormous need for identifying biomarkers for radiation biodosimetry to triage populations and treat critically exposed individuals. OBJECTIVE:To identify dose-differentiating miRNA signatures from whole blood samples of whole body irradiated mice. METHODS:Mice were whole body irradiated with X-rays (2?Gy-15?Gy); blood was collected at various time-points post-exposure; total RNA was isolated; miRNA microarrays were performed; miRNAs differentially expressed in irradiated vs. unirradiated controls were identified; feature extraction and classification models were applied to predict dose-differentiating miRNA signature. RESULTS:We observed a time and dose responsive alteration in the expression levels of miRNAs. Maximum number of miRNAs were altered at 24-h and 48-h time-points post-irradiation. A 23-miRNA signature was identified using feature selection algorithms and classifier models. An inverse correlation in the expression level changes of miR-17 members, and their targets were observed in whole body irradiated mice and non-human primates. CONCLUSION:Whole blood-based miRNA expression signatures might be used for predicting radiation exposures in a mass casualty nuclear incident.
Project description:There are currently no approved medical radiation countermeasures (MRC) to reduce the lethality of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation expected in nuclear emergencies. An ideal MRC would be effective even when administered well after radiation exposure and would counteract the effects of irradiation on the hematopoietic system and gastrointestinal tract that contribute to its lethality. Entolimod is a Toll-like receptor 5 agonist with demonstrated radioprotective/mitigative activity in rodents and radioprotective activity in non-human primates. Here, we report data from several exploratory studies conducted in lethally irradiated non-human primates (rhesus macaques) treated with a single intramuscular injection of entolimod (in the absence of intensive individualized supportive care) administered in a mitigative regimen, 1-48 hours after irradiation. Following exposure to LD50-70/40 of radiation, injection of efficacious doses of entolimod administered as late as 25 hours thereafter reduced the risk of mortality 2-3-fold, providing a statistically significant (P<0.01) absolute survival advantage of 40-60% compared to vehicle treatment. Similar magnitude of survival improvement was also achieved with drug delivered 48 hours after irradiation. Improved survival was accompanied by predominantly significant (P<0.05) effects of entolimod administration on accelerated morphological recovery of hematopoietic and immune system organs, decreased severity and duration of thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia, and increased clonogenic potential of the bone marrow compared to control irradiated animals. Entolimod treatment also led to reduced apoptosis and accelerated crypt regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract. Together, these data indicate that entolimod is a highly promising potential life-saving treatment for victims of radiation disasters.
Project description:Serpins are a group of serine-proteases involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. In particular, Serpinb3a is involved in the lysosomal necrosis cell death pathway with components that overlap with radiation-induced apoptosis. We investigated the radiation response of Serpinb3a-/- mice compared to Serpinb3a+/+ mice on the Balb/c background. Serpinb3a-/- mice showed significant radioresistance to a dose of 8.0 Gy total-body irradiation, compared to Serpinb3a+/+ Balb/c mice. Long-term bone marrow cultures from Serpinb3a-/- mice showed increased longevity. In clonogenic survival assays, fresh bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors, as well as clonal interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent hematopoietic progenitor and bone marrow stromal cell lines from Serpinb3a-/- mice were radioresistant. Serpinb3a-/- mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell lines had increased baseline and postirradiation antioxidant capacity. Serpinb3a-/- bone marrow stromal cells showed increased radiation-induced RNA transcripts for MnSOD and p21, and decreased levels of p53 and TGF-b. Both irradiated Serpinb3a-/- mouse bone marrow stromal cell lines and plasma removed from total-body irradiated mice had decreased levels of expression of stress response and inflammation-associated proteins. Abrogation of Serpinb3a may be a potential new target for mitigation of radiation effects.
Project description:Accidental or therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation has severe physiological consequences and can result in cell death. We previously demonstrated that deficiency or blockade of the ubiquitously expressed receptor CD47 results in remarkable cell and tissue protection against ischemic and radiation stress. Antagonists of CD47 or its ligand THBS1/thrombospondin 1 enhance cell survival and preserve their proliferative capacity. However the signaling pathways that mediate this cell-autonomous radioprotection are unclear. We now report a marked increase in autophagy in irradiated T-cells and endothelial cells lacking CD47. Irradiated T cells lacking CD47 exhibit significant increases in formation of autophagosomes comprising double-membrane vesicles visualized by electron microscopy and numbers of MAP1LC3A/B(+) puncta. Moreover, we observed significant increases in BECN1, ATG5, ATG7 and a reduction in SQSTM1/p62 expression relative to irradiated wild-type T cells. We observed similar increases in autophagy gene expression in mice resulting from blockade of CD47 in combination with total body radiation. Pharmacological or siRNA-mediated inhibition of autophagy selectively sensitized CD47-deficient cells to radiation, indicating that enhanced autophagy is necessary for the prosurvival response to CD47 blockade. Moreover, re-expression of CD47 in CD47-deficient T cells sensitized these cells to death by ionizing radiation and reversed the increase in autophagic flux associated with survival. This study indicates that CD47 deficiency confers cell survival through the activation of autophagic flux and identifies CD47 blockade as a pharmacological route to modulate autophagy for protecting tissue from radiation injury.
Project description:High-throughput, targeted metabolomics was used to identify early time-point small intestine and plasma metabolite markers of gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. The small intestine metabolite markers were cross correlated to plasma metabolites in order to identify minimally invasive circulating markers. The radiation exposure covered lethal and sublethal gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. The small intestine and plasma metabolite profiles were generated at 1 and 3 d postexposure following total-body irradiation. The small intestine and plasma metabolite profiles for mice receiving radiation at day 1 and 3 postexposure were significantly different from sham-irradiated mice. There were 14 metabolite markers identified at day 1 and 18 metabolite markers at day 3 that were small-intestine-specific plasma markers of gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. A number of the identified metabolites at day 1 were amino acids. Dysregulation of amino acid metabolism at 24 h post-total-body irradiation provides potential insight into the initial inflammatory response during gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome.