Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improves neurological function after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation; however, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment on expression profiles of multiple cytokines in the brain after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiac arrest was induced in rats by asphyxia and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated 6 minutes after cardiac arrest. One hour after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, rats were injected with either phosphate-buffered saline (control) or 1 × 106 bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via the tail vein. Serum S100B levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neurological deficit scores were evaluated to assess brain damage at 3 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Serum S100B levels were remarkably decreased and neurological deficit scores were obviously improved in the mesenchymal stem cell group compared with the phosphate-buffered saline group. Brains were isolated from the rats and expression levels of 90 proteins were determined using a RayBio Rat Antibody Array, to investigate the cytokine profiles. Brain levels of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, macrophage inflammatory protein-3?, macrophage-derived chemokine, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were decreased ? 1.5-fold, while levels of the anti-inflammatory factor interleukin-10 were increased ? 1.5-fold in the mesenchymal stem cell group compared with the control group. Donor mesenchymal stem cells were detected by immunofluorescence to determine their distribution in the damaged brain, and were primarily observed in the cerebral cortex. These results indicate that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates brain damage induced by cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, possibly via regulation of inflammatory mediators. This experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Fujian Medical University, China in January 2016 (approval No. 2016079).
Project description:Combinations of biomaterials and cells can effectively target delivery of cells or other therapeutic factors to the brain to rebuild damaged nerve pathways after brain injury. Porous collagen-chitosan scaffolds were prepared by a freeze-drying method based on brain tissue engineering. The scaffolds were impregnated with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. A traumatic brain injury rat model was established using the 300 g weight free fall impact method. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells/collagen-chitosan scaffolds were implanted into the injured brain. Modified neurological severity scores were used to assess the recovery of neurological function. The Morris water maze was employed to determine spatial learning and memory abilities. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to measure pathological changes in brain tissue. Immunohistochemistry was performed for vascular endothelial growth factor and for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)/neuron specific enolase and BrdU/glial fibrillary acidic protein. Our results demonstrated that the transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and collagen-chitosan scaffolds to traumatic brain injury rats remarkably reduced modified neurological severity scores, shortened the average latency of the Morris water maze, increased the number of platform crossings, diminished the degeneration of damaged brain tissue, and increased the positive reaction of vascular endothelial growth factor in the transplantation and surrounding areas. At 14 days after transplantation, increased BrdU/glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and decreased BrdU/neuron specific enolase expression were observed in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the injured area. The therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and collagen-chitosan scaffolds was superior to stereotactic injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alone. To test the biocompatibility and immunogenicity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and collagen-chitosan scaffolds, immunosuppressive cyclosporine was intravenously injected 12 hours before transplantation and 1-5 days after transplantation. The above indicators were similar to those of rats treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and collagen-chitosan scaffolds only. These findings indicate that transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a collagen-chitosan scaffold can promote the recovery of neuropathological injury in rats with traumatic brain injury. This approach has the potential to be developed as a treatment for traumatic brain injury in humans. All experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Investigation Committee of Capital Medical University, China (approval No. AEEI-2015-035) in December 2015.
Project description:Synovial and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after intradiscally injection show regenerative effects of nucleus pulposus. Microarray analyses of rats were performed to investigate the closeness of the gene profiles between the nucleus pulposus cells and the synovial or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. To investigate interaction between synovial mesenchymal stem cells and nucleus pulposus cells, human synovial mesenchymal stem cells and rat nucleus pulposus cells were co-cultured, and species specific microarray were performed. Synovium of knee joints, bone marrow and nucleus pulposus were harvested from rat or human, and cells were isolated for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. To compare the gene profiles each other, isolated cells were mono-cultured respectively, and human synovial mesenchymal stem cells and rat nucleus pulposus cells were co-cultured.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Various methods have been used to modify titanium implant surfaces with the aim of achieving better osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated a clustered nanorod structure on an acid-etched, microstructured titanium plate surface using hydrogen peroxide. We also evaluated biofunctionalization of the hybrid micro/nanorod topography on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to investigate the surface topography and phase composition of the modified titanium plate. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and seeded on the plate. The adhesion ability of the cells was then assayed by cell counting at one, 4, and 24 hours after cell seeding, and expression of adhesion-related protein integrin ?1 was detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, a polymerase chain reaction assay, alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays, and osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation behavior of the cells. RESULTS: The hybrid micro/nanoscale texture formed on the titanium surface enhanced the initial adhesion activity of the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, the hierarchical structure promoted osteogenic differentiation of these cells. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a hybrid micro/nanorod topography on a titanium surface fabricated by treatment with hydrogen peroxide followed by acid etching might facilitate osseointegration of a titanium implant in vivo.
Project description:Synovial and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after intradiscally injection show regenerative effects of nucleus pulposus. Microarray analyses of rats were performed to investigate the closeness of the gene profiles between the nucleus pulposus cells and the synovial or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. To investigate interaction between synovial mesenchymal stem cells and nucleus pulposus cells, human synovial mesenchymal stem cells and rat nucleus pulposus cells were co-cultured, and species specific microarray were performed. Overall design: Synovium of knee joints, bone marrow and nucleus pulposus were harvested from rat or human, and cells were isolated for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. To compare the gene profiles each other, isolated cells were mono-cultured respectively, and human synovial mesenchymal stem cells and rat nucleus pulposus cells were co-cultured.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into neurons under the induction of Schwann cells. However, key microRNAs and related pathways for differentiation remain unclear. This study screened and identified differentially expressed microRNAs in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by Schwann cell-conditioned medium, and explored targets and related pathways involved in their differentiation into neuronal-like cells. Primary bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from femoral and tibial bones, while primary Schwann cells were isolated from bilateral saphenous nerves. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in unconditioned (control group) and Schwann cell-conditioned medium (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell + Schwann cell group). Neuronal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by Schwann cell-conditioned medium was observed by time-lapse imaging. Upon induction, the morphology of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells changed into a neural shape with neurites. Results of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that nestin mRNA expression was upregulated from 1 to 3 days and downregulated from 3 to 7 days in the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell + Schwann cell group. Compared with the control group, microtubule-associated protein 2 mRNA expression gradually increased from 1 to 7 days in the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell + Schwann cell group. After 7 days of induction, microRNA analysis identified 83 significantly differentially expressed microRNAs between the two groups. Gene Ontology analysis indicated enrichment of microRNA target genes for neuronal projection development, regulation of axonogenesis, and positive regulation of cell proliferation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis demonstrated that Hippo, Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta, and Hedgehog signaling pathways were potentially associated with neural differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. This study, which carried out successful microRNA analysis of neuronal-like cells differentiated from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by Schwann cell induction, revealed key microRNAs and pathways involved in neural differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. All protocols were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences on March 12, 2017 (approval number: DWLI-20170311).
Project description:Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) exhibit an age-related lineage switch between osteogenic and adipogenic fates, which contributes to bone loss and adiposity. Here we identified a long noncoding RNA, Bmncr, which regulated the fate of BMSCs during aging. Mice depleted of Bmncr (Bmncr-KO) showed decreased bone mass and increased bone marrow adiposity, whereas transgenic overexpression of Bmncr (Bmncr-Tg) alleviated bone loss and bone marrow fat accumulation. Bmncr regulated the osteogenic niche of BMSCs by maintaining extracellular matrix protein fibromodulin (FMOD) and activation of the BMP2 pathway. Bmncr affected local 3D chromatin structure and transcription of Fmod. The absence of Fmod modified the bone phenotype of Bmncr-Tg mice. Further analysis revealed that Bmncr would serve as a scaffold to facilitate the interaction of TAZ and ABL, and thus facilitate the assembly of the TAZ and RUNX2/PPARG transcriptional complex, promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis. Adeno-associated viral-mediated overexpression of Taz in osteoprogenitors alleviated bone loss and marrow fat accumulation in Bmncr-KO mice. Furthermore, restoring BMNCR levels in human BMSCs reversed the age-related switch between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our findings indicate that Bmncr is a key regulator of the age-related osteogenic niche alteration and cell fate switch of BMSCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are bone-marrow derived cells, capable of multipotent differentiation into connective tissues including bone, tendon and cartilage. They are an attractive source for autologous cell-based treatments for a range of clinical diseases and injuries. MSCs have been demonstrated to possess an age-related loss of cellular functions including differentiation potential and proliferation capacity; with implications for stem cell therapies in older patients. Furthermore the reduction in differentiation potential could contribute to ageing and age-related disease. Biological aging is coupled with a progressive reduction in the regulation of cellular, tissue and organ interaction, resulting in senescence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epigenetic, RNA and protein changes in ageing MSCs in order to understand the age-related functional and biological changes required for their applications in regenerative medicine.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells sheets have been verified as a promising non-scaffold strategy for bone regeneration. Alveolar bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, derived from neural crest, have the character of easily obtained and strong multi-differential potential. However, the bone regenerative features of alveolar bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells sheets in the craniofacial region remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to compare the osteogenic differentiation and bone defect repairment characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells sheets derived from alveolar bone (alveolar bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) and iliac bone (Lon-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) in vitro and in vivo. Histology character, osteogenic differentiation, and osteogenic gene expression of human alveolar bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Lon-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were compared in vitro. The cell sheets were implanted in rabbit calvarial defects to evaluate tissue regeneration characteristics. Integrated bioinformatics analysis was used to reveal the specific gene and pathways expression profile of alveolar bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results showed that alveolar bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells had higher osteogenic differentiation than Lon-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Although no obvious differences were found in the histological structure, fibronectin and integrin ?1 expression between them, alveolar-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells sheet exhibited higher mineral deposition and expression levels of osteogenic marker genes. After being transplanted in the rabbit calvarial defects area, the results showed that greater bone volume and trabecular thickness regeneration were found in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells sheet group compared to Lon-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group at both 4?weeks and 8?weeks. Finally, datasets of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells versus Lon-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (another neural crest derived mesenchymal stem cells) versus umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were analyzed. Total 71 differential genes were identified by overlap between the 2 datasets. Homeobox genes, such as LHX8, MKX, PAX9, MSX, and HOX, were identified as the most significantly changed and would be potential specific genes in neural crest mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, the Al-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells sheet-based tissue regeneration appears to be a promising strategy for craniofacial defect repair in future clinical applications.
Project description:The differentiation shift from osteogenesis to adipogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) characterizes many pathological bone loss conditions. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) is highly enriched in the bone marrow for C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-positive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homing and tumor bone metastasis. In this study, we displayed CXCR4 on the surface of exosomes derived from genetically engineered NIH-3T3 cells. CXCR4<sup>+</sup> exosomes selectively accumulated in the bone marrow. Then, we fused CXCR4<sup>+</sup> exosomes with liposomes carrying antagomir-188 to produce hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). The hybrid NPs specifically gathered in the bone marrow and released antagomir-188, which promoted osteogenesis and inhibited adipogenesis of BMSCs and thereby reversed age-related trabecular bone loss and decreased cortical bone porosity in mice. Taken together, this study presents a novel way to obtain bone-targeted exosomes via surface display of CXCR4 and a promising anabolic therapeutic approach for age-related bone loss.