Project description:Gammarids are amphipods found worldwide distributed in fresh and marine waters. They play an important role in aquatic ecosystems and are well established sentinel species in ecotoxicology. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of a male individual and a female individual for seven different taxonomic groups belonging to the two genera Gammarus and Echinogammarus: Gammarus fossarum A, G. fossarum B, G. fossarum C, Gammarus wautieri, Gammarus pulex, Echinogammarus berilloni, and Echinogammarus marinus. These taxa were chosen to explore the molecular diversity of transcribed genes of genotyped individuals from these groups. Transcriptomes were de novo assembled and annotated. High-quality assembly was confirmed by BUSCO comparison against the Arthropod dataset. The 14 RNA-Seq-derived protein sequence databases proposed here will be a significant resource for proteogenomics studies of these ecotoxicologically relevant non-model organisms. These transcriptomes represent reliable reference sequences for whole-transcriptome and proteome studies on other gammarids, for primer design to clone specific genes or monitor their specific expression, and for analyses of molecular differences between gammarid species.
Project description:We used RNAseq to analyse the transcriptomes of cycling and quiescent livers from cTKO (Rblox/lox;p130lox/lox;p107?/?) and control mice. mRNA profiles of cycling and quiescent control and TKO liver tissue were generated by deep sequencing in duplicate
Project description:A complex tissue contains a variety of cells with distinct molecular signatures. Single-cell RNA sequencing has characterized the transcriptomes of different cell types and enables researchers to discover the underlying mechanisms of cellular heterogeneity. A critical task in single-cell transcriptome studies is to uncover transcriptional differences among specific cell types. However, the intercellular transcriptional variation is usually confounded with high level of technical noise, which masks the important biological signals. Here, we propose a new computational method DiffGE for differential analysis, adopting network entropy to measure the expression dynamics of gene groups among different cell types and to identify the highly differential gene groups. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed method, DiffGE is applied to three independent single-cell RNA-seq datasets and to identify the highly dynamic gene groups that exhibit distinctive expression patterns in different cell types. We compare the results of our method with those of three widely applied algorithms. Further, the gene function analysis indicates that these detected differential gene groups are significantly related to cellular regulation processes. The results demonstrate the power of our method in evaluating the transcriptional dynamics and identifying highly differential gene groups among different cell types.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Advances in DNA sequencing and proteomics have facilitated quantitative comparisons of snake venom composition. Most studies have employed one approach or the other. Here, both Illumina cDNA sequencing and LC/MS were used to compare the transcriptomes and proteomes of two pit vipers, Protobothrops flavoviridis and Ovophis okinavensis, which differ greatly in their biology. RESULTS: Sequencing of venom gland cDNA produced 104,830 transcripts. The Protobothrops transcriptome contained transcripts for 103 venom-related proteins, while the Ovophis transcriptome contained 95. In both, transcript abundances spanned six orders of magnitude. Mass spectrometry identified peptides from 100% of transcripts that occurred at higher than contaminant (e.g. human keratin) levels, including a number of proteins never before sequenced from snakes. These transcriptomes reveal fundamentally different envenomation strategies. Adult Protobothrops venom promotes hemorrhage, hypotension, incoagulable blood, and prey digestion, consistent with mammalian predation. Ovophis venom composition is less readily interpreted, owing to insufficient pharmacological data for venom serine and metalloproteases, which comprise more than 97.3% of Ovophis transcripts, but only 38.0% of Protobothrops transcripts. Ovophis venom apparently represents a hybrid strategy optimized for frogs and small mammals. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the power of cDNA sequencing combined with MS profiling. The former quantifies transcript composition, allowing detection of novel proteins, but cannot indicate which proteins are actually secreted, as does MS. We show, for the first time, that transcript and peptide abundances are correlated. This means that MS can be used for quantitative, non-invasive venom profiling, which will be beneficial for studies of endangered species.
Project description:Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease involves a variety of phenotypic changes, suggesting a general alteration in genome activity.Investigation of different tissue transcriptomes in male and female F3 generation vinclozolin versus control lineage rats demonstrated all tissues examined had transgenerational transcriptomes. The microarrays from 11 different tissues were compared with a gene bionetwork analysis. Although each tissue transgenerational transcriptome was unique, common cellular pathways and processes were identified between the tissues. A cluster analysis identified gene modules with coordinated gene expression and each had unique gene networks regulating tissue-specific gene expression and function. A large number of statistically significant over-represented clusters of genes were identified in the genome for both males and females. These gene clusters ranged from 2-5 megabases in size, and a number of them corresponded to the epimutations previously identified in sperm that transmit the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease phenotypes.Combined observations demonstrate that all tissues derived from the epigenetically altered germ line develop transgenerational transcriptomes unique to the tissue, but common epigenetic control regions in the genome may coordinately regulate these tissue-specific transcriptomes. This systems biology approach provides insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of a variety of adult onset disease phenotypes.
Project description:Data on absolute molecule numbers will empower the modeling, understanding, and comparison of cellular functions and biological systems. We quantified transcriptomes and proteomes in fission yeast during cellular proliferation and quiescence. This rich resource provides the first comprehensive reference for all RNA and most protein concentrations in a eukaryote under two key physiological conditions. The integrated data set supports quantitative biology and affords unique insights into cell regulation. Although mRNAs are typically expressed in a narrow range above 1 copy/cell, most long, noncoding RNAs, except for a distinct subset, are tightly repressed below 1 copy/cell. Cell-cycle-regulated transcription tunes mRNA numbers to phase-specific requirements but can also bring about more switch-like expression. Proteins greatly exceed mRNAs in abundance and dynamic range, and concentrations are regulated to functional demands. Upon transition to quiescence, the proteome changes substantially, but, in stark contrast to mRNAs, proteins do not uniformly decrease but scale with cell volume.