Project description:RNA polyadenylation is an important step in the messenger RNA (mRNA) maturation process, and the first step is recognizing the polyadenylation signal (PAS). The PAS type and distribution is a key determinant of post-transcriptional mRNA modification and gene expression. However, little is known about PAS usage and alternative polyadenylation (APA) regulation in livestock species. Recently, sequencing technology has enabled the generation of a large amount of sequencing data revealing variation in poly(A) signals and APA regulation in <i>Sus scrofa</i>. We identified 62,491 polyadenylation signals in <i>Sus scrofa</i> using expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences combined with RNA-seq analysis. The composition and usage frequency of polyadenylation signal in <i>Sus scrofa</i> is similar with that of human and mouse. The most highly conserved polyadenylation signals are AAUAAA and AUUAAA, used for over 63.35% of genes. In addition, we also analyzed the U/GU-rich downstream sequence (DSE) element, located downstream of the cleavage site. Our results indicate that APA regulation was widely occurred in <i>Sus scrofa</i>, as in other organisms. Our result was useful for the accurate annotation of RNA 3' ends in <i>Sus scrofa</i> and the analysis of polyadenylation signal usage in <i>Sus scrofa</i> would give the new insights into the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Project description:Genus Iotatorquevirus consists of 2 species, Torque teno sus virus 1a and Torque teno sus virus 1b, which are ubiquitous in swine populations, and are widely reported in association with porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD). To evaluate the relationship with PCVAD, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were used to detect both Iotatorquevirus species by nested PCR and sequencing. Sixty-eight PCVAD cases were selected as well as 32 porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) non-affected cases. Overall, 33 of the 100 cases were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1a and 8 of 100 were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1b. Only 24 of 68 (35%) PCVAD cases were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1a; 39% (9/23) of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and 33% (15/45) of PCV2-associated reproductive failure cases. Among PCV2 non-affected cases, 28% were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1a and 6% were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1b. Torque teno sus virus 1b was not detected in PCV2-associated reproductive failure cases. Regardless of the PCV2-status, a lower frequency of both Iotatorquevirus species was found than depicted in other reports and there was no statistical relationship with PCVAD (? 2 < 0.01). Given the worldwide genomic variability of Iotatorquevirus species, it is feasible that species prevalent in Mexico share a lower nucleotide sequence identity, leading to different pathogenic potential.
Project description:The discovery of new protein-coding DNA variants related to carcass traits is very important for the Italian pig industry, which requires heavy pigs with higher thickness of subcutaneous fat for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) productions. Exome capture techniques offer the opportunity to focus on the regions of DNA potentially related to the gene and protein expression. In this research a human commercial target enrichment kit was used to evaluate its performances for pig exome capture and for the identification of DNA variants suitable for comparative analysis. Two pools of 30 pigs each, crosses of Italian Duroc X Large White (DU) and Commercial hybrid X Large White (HY), were used and NGS libraries were prepared with the SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library (Agilent). A total of 140.2 M and 162.5 M of raw reads were generated for DU and HY, respectively. Average coverage of all the exonic regions for Sus scrofa (ENSEMBL Sus_scrofa.Sscrofa10.2.73.gtf) was 89.33X for DU and 97.56X for HY; and 35% of aligned bases uniquely mapped to off-target regions. Comparison of sequencing data with the Sscrofa10.2 reference genome, after applying hard filtering criteria, revealed a total of 232,530 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of which 20.6% mapped in exonic regions and 49.5% within intronic regions. The comparison of allele frequencies of 213 randomly selected SNVs from exome sequencing and the same SNVs analyzed with a Sequenom MassARRAY® system confirms that this "human-on-pig" approach offers new potentiality for the identification of DNA variants in protein-coding genes.