Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) represent a frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To elucidate HIV-NHL pathogenesis, we performed a genome-wide DNA profiling based on a single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray comparative genomic hybridization in 57 HIV-lymphomas and, for comparison, in 105 immunocompetent diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (IC-DLBCL). Genomic complexity varied across HIV-NHL subtypes. HIV-Burkitt lymphoma showed a significantly lower number of lesions than HIV-DLBCL (P = 0.032), whereas the median number of copy number changes was significantly higher in Epstein-Barr virus negative (EBV-) HIV-DLBCL (42.5, range 8-153) compared to EBV+ cases (22; range 3-41; P = 0.029). Compared to IC-DLBCL, HIV-DLBCL displayed a distinct genomic profile with no gains of 18q and specific genetic lesions. Fragile sites-associated genes, including FHIT (FRA3B), WWOX (FRA16D), DCC (FRA18B) and PARK2 (FRA6E) were frequently inactivated in HIV-NHL by interstitial deletions, and a significantly higher prevalence of FHIT alterations was observed in HIV-DLBCL compared to IC-DLBCL. The same genes involved by fragile site deletions were also frequently affected by aberrant methylation of regulative regions.
Project description:Transcriptional and genomic profiling study of HIV positive and HIV negative Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Tumors were subtyped using the Lymph2Cx assay. Only GCB (germinal center like B-cell) subtypes were then subjected to digitial gene expression profiling and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The study used DNA extracted from FFPE DLBCL tumors derived from HIV(+) and HIV(-) patients to assess copy number variation differences between the HIV(+) and HIV(-) cohorts. aCGH data was correlated with gene expression & IHC data. Overall design: aCGH was performed on 19 HIV positive and 20 HIV negative GCB DLBCL samples using Agilent SurePrint G3 human CGH arrays. DLBCL is more agreesive in HIV(+) patients compared to HIV(-) individuals. Study objective was to identify novel markers and potential therapeutic targets that contribute to the enhanced agressive nature of this disease in HIV infected individuals.
Project description:Transcriptional and genomic profiling study of HIV positive and HIV negative Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Tumors were subtyped using the Lymph2Cx assay. Only GCB (germinal center like B-cell) subtypes were then subjected to digitial gene expression profiling and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The study used total RNA extracted from FFPE DLBCL tumors derived from HIV(+) and HIV(-) patients to assess differential expression of known cancer genes. Gene expression was correlated with IHC and array CGH data. Overall design: Digital gene expression profiling of 739 cancer related genes was performed on 19 HIV positive and 21 HIV negative GCB-DLBCL samples using the PanCancer Pathways panel and nCounter Technology from NanoString with customized spike-ins. DLBCL is more agressive in HIV(+) patients compared to HIV(-) individuals. Study objective was to identify novel markers and potential therapeutic targets that contribute to the enhanced agressive nature of this disease in HIV infected individuals.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:For patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), standard-care is rituximab administered with CHOP or CHOP-like chemotherapy (R-CHOP). However, the effectiveness and safety of R-CHOP among DLBCL patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is less clear, as HIV+ patients were omitted from most clinical trials and population-level data from unselected patients are limited. R-CHOP was funded for HIV-associated DLBCL patients with CD4 >50/mm3 in Ontario in February 2015. METHODS:Patients with a new diagnosis of DLBCL were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry between April 2010 and March 2018. HIV diagnosis and chemotherapy regimen were ascertained using administrative databases at Ontario Health. The effect of rituximab and HIV on overall survival was assessed in the HIV+ subgroup (R-CHOP vs CHOP) and in the R-CHOP subgroup (HIV+ vs HIV-). RESULTS:Among HIV+ patients, receipt of R-CHOP was associated with a fivefold improvement in overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.29 (0.13-0.66) compared with CHOP), after adjustment. Among patients who received R-CHOP (n = 6106), older age, male sex, lower neighborhood income, and higher comorbidity were associated with worse overall survival, after adjustment (P < .001 for all), but HIV positivity was not prognostic (HR 1.12 (0.60-2.10)). Within 1-year after diagnosis, HIV+ patients receiving R-CHOP had a similar proportion of patients who visited the emergency department (67% vs 66% P = .43) or admitted to hospital (58% vs 52%, P = .43) and as HIV- patients receiving R-CHOP. CONCLUSION:HIV status did not affect prognosis for patients with DLBCL receiving R-CHOP in an unselected general population when rituximab was used according to funding criteria. R-CHOP was safe and effective for DLBCL treatment, regardless of HIV status.
Project description:Sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) can be delineated from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by a very homogeneous mRNA expression signature. However, it remained unclear whether all three BL variants-sBL, endemic BL (eBL) and human immunodeficiency virus-associated BL (HIV-BL)-represent a uniform biological entity despite their differences in geographical occurrence, association with immunodeficiency and/or incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To address this issue, we generated micro RNA (miRNA) profiles from 18 eBL, 31 sBL and 15 HIV-BL cases. In addition, we analyzed the miRNA expression of 86 DLBCL to determine whether miRNA profiles recapitulate the molecular differences between BL and DLBCL evidenced by mRNA profiling. A signature of 38 miRNAs containing MYC regulated and nuclear factor-kB pathway-associated miRNAs was obtained that differentiated BL from DLBCL. The miRNA profiles of sBL and eBL displayed only six differentially expressed miRNAs, whereas HIV and EBV infection had no impact on the miRNA profile of BL. In conclusion, miRNA profiling confirms that BL and DLBCL represent distinct lymphoma categories and demonstrates that the three BL variants are representatives of the same biological entity with only marginal miRNA expression differences between eBL and sBL.
Project description:Plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA measurement has established prognostic utility in EBV-driven lymphomas, where it serves as a circulating tumor DNA marker. The value of plasma EBV measurement may be amplified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where advanced imaging and molecular technologies for risk stratification are not typically available. However, its utility in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is less certain, given that only a subset of DLBCLs are EBV-positive. To explore this possibility, we measured plasma EBV DNA at diagnosis in a cohort of patients with DLBCL in Malawi. High plasma EBV DNA at diagnosis (?3.0 log10 copies/mL) was associated with decreased overall survival (OS) (P = .048). When stratified by HIV status, the prognostic utility of baseline plasma EBV DNA level was restricted to HIV-positive patients. Unexpectedly, most HIV-positive patients with high plasma EBV DNA at diagnosis had EBV-negative lymphomas, as confirmed by multiple methods. Even in these HIV-positive patients with EBV-negative DLBCL, high plasma EBV DNA remained associated with shorter OS (P = .014). These results suggest that EBV reactivation in nontumor cells is a poor prognostic finding even in HIV-positive patients with convincingly EBV-negative DLBCL, extending the potential utility of EBV measurement as a valuable and implementable prognostic marker in SSA.
Project description:Outcomes for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are poorly described. We report mature data from one of the first prospective SSA cohorts. Patients aged ?18 years with DLBCL were enrolled in Malawi 2013-2017. Participants were treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy and concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART) if positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+). Eighty-six participants (mean age 47 years, standard deviation 13) were enrolled: 54 (63%) were male and 51 (59%) were HIV+, of whom 34 (67%) were on ART at DLBCL diagnosis. Median CD4 count was 0·113 cells × 109 /l (interquartile range [IQR] 0·062-0·227) and 25 (49%) had HIV viral load <400 copies/?l. Participants received median six cycles CHOP (IQR 4-6). No patients were lost to follow-up and the 2-year overall survival was 38% (95% confidence interval 28-49). In multivariable analyses, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) ?2 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) >2× upper limit of normal (ULN) were associated with mortality. HIV status was not associated with mortality. A simplified prognostic model of LDH >2× ULN and PS ?2 performed at least as well as the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index. DLBCL can be successfully treated in SSA and outcomes did not differ by HIV status. A simplified prognostic model prognosticates well and may be easier to use in resource-limited settings but requires validation.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents a clinically heterogeneous disease. Models based on immunohistochemistry predict clinical outcome. These include subdivision into germinal center (GC) versus non-GC subtypes; proliferation index (measured by expression of Ki-67), and expression of BCL-2, FOXP1, or B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein (Blimp-1)/PRDM1. We sought to determine whether immunohistochemical analyses of biopsies from patients with DLBCL having HIV infection are similarly relevant for prognosis.We examined 81 DLBCLs from patients with AIDS in AMC010 (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone [CHOP] v CHOP-rituximab) and AMC034 (etoposide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and dose-adjusted cyclophosphamide plus rituximab concurrent v sequential) clinical trials and compared the immunophenotype with survival data, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity, and CD4 counts.The GC and non-GC subtypes of DLBCL did not differ significantly with respect to overall survival or CD4 count at cancer presentation. EBV could be found in both subtypes of DLBCL, although less frequently in the GC subtype, and did not affect survival. Expression of FOXP1, Blimp-1/PRDM1, or BCL-2 was not correlated with the outcome in patients with AIDS-related DLBCL.These data indicate that with current treatment strategies for lymphoma and control of HIV infection, commonly used immunohistochemical markers may not be clinically relevant in HIV-infected patients with DLBCL. The only predictive immunohistochemical marker was found to be Ki-67, where a higher proliferation index was associated with better survival, suggesting a better response to therapy in patients whose tumors had higher proliferation rates.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine if changes in levels of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) were seen preceding the diagnosis of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL). DESIGN:Serum miRNA levels were compared in 3 subject groups from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: HIV-negative men (n = 43), HIV-positive men who did not develop NHL (n = 45), and HIV-positive men before AIDS-NHL diagnosis (n = 62, median time before diagnosis, 8.8 months). METHODS:A total of 175 serum-enriched miRNAs were initially screened to identify differentially expressed miRNAs among these groups and the results validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was then performed to assess biomarker utility. RESULTS:Higher levels of miR-21 and miR-122, and a lower level of miR-223, were able to discriminate HIV-infected from the HIV-uninfected groups, suggesting that these miRNAs are biomarkers for HIV infection but are not AIDS-NHL specific. Among the HIV-infected groups, a higher level of miR-222 was able to discriminate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) subjects from HIV-infected subjects who did not develop NHL, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.777 and 0.792, respectively. At miR-222 cutoff values of 0.105 for DLBCL and 0.109 for PCNSL, the sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 77%, and 80% and 82%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Altered serum levels of miR-21, miR-122, and miR-223 are seen in HIV-infected individuals. Higher serum level of miR-222 has clear potential as a serum biomarker for earlier detection of DLBCL and PCNSL among HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is more prevalent and more often fatal in HIV-infected patients and SIV-infected monkeys compared to immune-competent individuals. Molecular, biological, and immunological data indicate that virus-associated lymphomagenesis is similar in both infected hosts. To find genes specifically overexpressed in HIV/SIV-associated and non-HIV/SIV-associated DLBCL we compared gene expression profiles of HIV/SIV-related and non-HIV-related lymphomas using subtractive hybridization and Northern blot analysis. Our experimental approach allowed us to detect two genes (a-myb and pub) upregulated solely in HIV/SIV-associated DLBCLs potentially involved in virus-specific lymphomagenesis in human and monkey. Downregulation of the pub gene was observed in all non-HIV-associated lymphomas investigated. In addition, we have found genes upregulated in both non-HIV- and HIV-associated lymphomas. Among those were genes both with known (set, ND4, SMG-1) and unknown functions. In summary, we have demonstrated that simultaneous transcriptional upregulation of at least two genes (a-myb and pub) was specific for AIDS-associated lymphomas.