Project description:Differential expression between monosoic derivative and parental strain of Candida albicans. The important human pathogen Candida albicans possesses an unusual form of gene regulation, in which the copy number of an entire specific chromosome or a large portion of a specific chromosome changes in response to a specific adverse environment, thus, assuring survival. In the absence of the adverse environment, the altered portion of the genome can be restored to its normal condition. One major question is how C. albicans copes with gene imbalance arising by transitory aneuploid states. Here, we compared transcriptomes from two copies of chromosome 5 (Ch5) in a normal diploid strain 3153A and from a single copy of Ch5 in representative derivative Sor55. Statistical analysis revealed that at least 40% of transcripts from the monosomic Ch5 are fully compensated to a disomic level, thus, indicating the existence of a genome-wide mechanism maintaining cell homeostasis. However, a minor portion of transcripts diminished twofold in accordance with what would be expected for Ch5 monosomy. Another minor portion of transcripts, unexpectedly, increased up to twofold and higher then the disomic level, demonstrating indirect control by monosomy. We suggest that C. albicans unusual regulation of gene expression by the loss and gain of entire chromosomes is coupled with widespread compensation of gene dosage at the transcriptional level. Overall design: The laboratory strain 3153A is a prototrophic laboratory stain of Candida albicans. The strain Sor55 is a representative derivative of 3153A, monosomic for Ch5. Three replicate hybridizations were performed for of each strain. Normalization were done using non-chr5 genes to avoid the potential dosage effects on chr5 genes.
Project description:The objective of the study was to determine the effects of Candida albicans respiratory tract colonization on Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia in a rat model. Rats were colonized with C. albicans by instillation of 3 × 10(6) CFU into their airways, while sterile saline was instilled in the control group. The colonized rats were further divided into two groups: treated with amphotericin B or not. The rats were subsequently infected with A. baumannii (10(8) CFU by tracheobronchial instillation). A. baumannii lung CFU counts, cytokine lung levels, and rates of A. baumannii pneumonia were compared between groups. In vitro expression of A. baumannii virulence genes was measured by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR after 24-hour incubation with C. albicans or with Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth alone. Rats with Candida colonization developed A. baumannii pneumonia more frequently and had higher A. baumannii CFU burdens and heavier lungs than controls. After A. baumannii infection, lung interleukin 17 (IL-17) concentrations were lower and gamma interferon (IFN-?) concentrations were higher in Candida-colonized rats than in controls. Candida-colonized rats treated with amphotericin B had a decreased rate of A. baumannii pneumonia and lower IFN-? levels but higher IL-17 levels than untreated rats. Expression of basC, barB, bauA, ptk, plc2, and pld2 was induced while expression of ompA and abaI was suppressed in A. baumannii cultured in the presence of C. albicans C. albicans colonization facilitated the development of A. baumannii pneumonia in a rat model. Among Candida-colonized rats, antifungal treatment lowered the incidence of A. baumannii pneumonia. These findings could be due to modification of the host immune response and/or expression of A. baumannii virulence genes by Candida spp.
Project description:Overexpression of the Candida albicans ATP-binding cassette transporter CaCdr1p causes clinically significant resistance to azole drugs including fluconazole (FLC). Screening of a ~1.89 × 10(6) member D-octapeptide combinatorial library that concentrates library members at the yeast cell surface identified RC21v3, a 4-methoxy-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenesulphonyl derivative of the D-octapeptide D-NH(2) -FFKWQRRR-CONH(2) , as a potent and stereospecific inhibitor of CaCdr1p. RC21v3 chemosensitized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing CaCdr1p but not other fungal ABC transporters, the C. albicans MFS transporter CaMdr1p or the azole target enzyme CaErg11p, to FLC. RC21v3 also chemosensitized clinical C. albicans isolates overexpressing CaCDR1 to FLC, even when CaCDR2 was overexpressed. Specific targeting of CaCdr1p by RC21v3 was confirmed by spontaneous RC21v3 chemosensitization-resistant suppressor mutants of S. cerevisiae expressing CaCdr1p. The suppressor mutations introduced a positive charge beside, or within, extracellular loops 1, 3, 4 and 6 of CaCdr1p or an aromatic residue near the extracytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 5. The mutations did not affect CaCdr1p localization or CaCdr1p ATPase activity but some increased susceptibility to the CaCdr1p substrates FLC, rhodamine 6G, rhodamine 123 and cycloheximide. The suppressor mutations showed that the drug-like CaCdr1p inhibitors FK506, enniatin, milbemycin ?11 and milbemycin ?9 have modes of action similar to RC21v3.
Project description:Continuing efforts to discover novel means of combating fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans have identified an indole derivative that sensitizes strains demonstrating resistance to fluconazole. This tetracycle (3, ML229) does not appear to act through established Hsp90 or calcineurin pathways to chemosensitize C. albicans, as determined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae models, and may be a useful probe to uncover alternative resistance pathways.
Project description:This experiment was to look at the change in gene expression in oral epithelial cells infected for 6 h or 24 h with Candida albicans. The intent was to determine what changes were driven by early and late recognition of wild-type. invasive Candida albicans
Project description:INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES:An increase in antifungal resistant Candida strains has been reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to detect mutations in resistance genes of azole-resistant, echinocandin-resistant or multi-resistant strains using next generation sequencing technology, which allows the analysis of multiple resistance mechanisms in a high throughput setting. METHODS:Forty clinical Candida isolates (16 C. albicans and 24 C. glabrata strains) with MICs for azoles and echinocandins above the clinical EUCAST breakpoint were examined. The genes ERG11, ERG3, TAC1 and GSC1 (FKS1) in C. albicans, as well as ERG11, CgPDR1, FKS1 and FKS2 in C. glabrata were sequenced. RESULTS:Fifty-four different missense mutations were identified, 13 of which have not been reported before. All nine echinocandin-resistant Candida isolates showed mutations in the hot spot (HS) regions of FKS1, FKS2 or GSC1. In ERG3 two homozygous premature stop codons were identified in two highly azole-resistant and moderately echinocandin-resistant C. albicans strains. Seven point mutations in ERG11 were determined in azole-resistant C. albicans whereas in azole-resistant C. glabrata, no ERG11 mutations were detected. In 10 out of 13 azole-resistant C. glabrata, 12 different potential gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factor CgPDR1 were verified, which are associated with an overexpression of the efflux pumps CDR1/2. CONCLUSION:This study showed that next generation sequencing allows the thorough investigation of a large number of isolates more cost efficient and faster than conventional Sanger sequencing. Targeting different resistance genes and a large sample size of highly resistant strains allows a better determination of the relevance of the different mutations, and to differentiate between causal mutations and polymorphisms.
Project description:Precise genome modification is essential for the molecular dissection of Candida albicans, and is yielding invaluable information about the roles of specific gene functions in this major fungal pathogen of humans. C. albicans is naturally diploid, unable to undergo meiosis, and utilizes a non-canonical genetic code. Hence, specialized tools have had to be developed for gene disruption in C. albicans that permit the deletion of both target alleles, and in some cases, the recycling of the Candida-specific selectable markers. Previously, we developed a tool based on the Cre recombinase, which recycles markers in C. albicans with 90-100% efficiency via site-specific recombination between loxP sites. Ironically, the utility of this system was hampered by the extreme efficiency of Cre, which prevented the construction in Escherichia coli of stable disruption cassettes carrying a methionine-regulatable CaMET3p-cre gene flanked by loxP sites. Therefore, we have significantly enhanced this system by engineering new Clox cassettes that carry a synthetic, intron-containing cre gene. The Clox kit facilitates efficient transformation and marker recycling, thereby simplifying and accelerating the process of gene disruption in C. albicans. Indeed, homozygous mutants can be generated and their markers resolved within two weeks. The Clox kit facilitates strategies involving single marker recycling or multi-marker gene disruption. Furthermore, it includes the dominant NAT1 marker, as well as URA3, HIS1 and ARG4 cassettes, thereby permitting the manipulation of clinical isolates as well as genetically marked strains of C. albicans. The accelerated gene disruption strategies afforded by this new Clox system are likely to have a profound impact on the speed with which C. albicans pathobiology can be dissected.
Project description:Systemic infections of Candida species pose a significant threat to public health. Toxicity associated with current therapies and emergence of resistant strains present major therapeutic challenges. Here, we report exploitation of the probiotic properties of two novel, food-derived yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain KTP) and Issatchenkia occidentalis (strain ApC), as an alternative approach to combat widespread opportunistic fungal infections. Both yeasts inhibit virulence traits such as adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation of several non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis as well as the recently identified multidrug-resistant species Candida auris They inhibit adhesion to abiotic surfaces as well as cultured colon epithelial cells. Furthermore, probiotic treatment blocks the formation of biofilms of individual non-albicans Candida strains as well as mixed-culture biofilms of each non-albicans Candida strain in combination with Candida albicans The probiotic yeasts attenuated non-albicans Candida infections in a live animal. In vivo studies using Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that exposure to probiotic yeasts protects nematodes from infection with non-albicans Candida strains compared to worms that were not exposed to the probiotic yeasts. Furthermore, application of probiotic yeasts postinfection with non-albicans Candida alleviated pathogenic colonization of the nematode gut. The probiotic properties of these novel yeasts are better than or comparable to those of the commercially available probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, which was used as a reference strain throughout this study. These results indicate that yeasts derived from food sources could serve as an effective alternative to antifungal therapy against emerging pathogenic Candida species.IMPORTANCE Non-albicans Candida-associated infections have emerged as a major risk factor in the hospitalized and immunecompromised patients. Besides, antifungal-associated complications occur more frequently with these non-albicans Candida species than with C. albicans Therefore, as an alternative approach to combat these widespread non-albicans Candida-associated infections, here we showed the probiotic effect of two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain KTP) and Issatchenkia occidentalis (ApC), in preventing adhesion and biofilm formation of five non-albicans Candida strains, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida auris The result would influence the current trend of the conversion of conventional antimicrobial therapy into beneficial probiotic microbe-associated antimicrobial treatment.
Project description:Purpose: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized systems-based analysis of cellular pathways. The goals of this study are to compare transcriptome profiling of control of C. albicans ATCC 10231 (RNA-seq) to transcriptome profiling of garlic oil-treated C. albicans ATCC 10231 and to evaluate protocols for optimal high-throughput data analysis Methods:SDB medium, C. albicans cells and garlic oil were added to two separate 50 mL conical flasks. The initial cell concentrations in culture were both 105 CFU/mL. The cultures were incubated in a water bath shaker at 28 ºC with shaking at 150 rpm for 12 h. Garlic oil or PBS buffer were then added to the cultures to make the concentrations of garlic oil arrived at 0 (control) and 1.25 ?l/mL, respectively. The cultures were continuously incubated at the same conditions for 5 h. The cells were then sampled and centrifuged. The cell precipitates in the control and 1.25 ?l/mL garlic oil groups were quickly separately frozen at -80 ºC. Then total RNA were repared from the cell pellets. Results:The RNA sequencing results showed that many genes in C. albicans exposed to garlic oil were differentially expressed. Nearly three thousand genes were differentially expressed, with either an increase or decrease of more than twofold. Most of them were down regulated while a small number were upregulated. Conclusions: Our study indicated that garlic oil induced differential expression of some critical genes, such as genes for cellular response to drugs, oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis, and the cellular response to starvation. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation, spliceosome, cell cycle, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, pyrimidine metabolism, meiosis, RNA transport, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA degradation. The mRNA profiles of C. albicans ATCC 10231 (ck) and garlic oil-treated C. albicans ATCC 10231 (sample1) were generated by deep sequencing, in one time, using Illumina Higseq 2500.
Project description:Candida albicans belongs to the normal microbial flora on epithelial surfaces of humans. However, under certain, still not fully understood conditions, it can become pathogenic and cause a spectrum of diseases, from local infections to life-threatening septicemia. We investigated a panel of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs), potentially involved in mucosal immunity against this pathogen. Out of six studied AMPs, psoriasin was most up-regulated during a mucosal infection, an acute episode of recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis, although candidacidal activity has not been demonstrated. We here show that psoriasin binds to ?-glucan, a basic component of the C. albicans cell wall, and thereby inhibits adhesion of the pathogen to surfaces and increases IL-8 production by mucosal epithelial cells. In conclusion, we show a novel mechanism of action of psoriasin. By inhibiting C. albicans adhesion and by enhancing cytokine production, psoriasin contributes to the immune response against C. albicans. KEY MESSAGES: The antimicrobial peptide psoriasin is highly up-regulated during a local mucosal infection, Candida albicans vulvovaginitis. Psoriasin binds to ?-glucan in the Candida albicans cell wall and thereby inhibits adhesion of the pathogen. Binding of psoriasin to Candida albicans induces an immune response by mucosal epithelial cells.