Project description:Background: New biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate diagnosis in Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD), thus reducing the need for invasive procedures, and to enable tailoring and monitoring of medical treatment. Methods: In this study we investigated if patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 21), non-IPF ILDs (n = 57) and other lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) n = 24, lung cancer (LC) n = 16) as well as healthy subjects (n = 20) show relevant differences in exhaled NO (FeNO; Niox MINO), or in eicosanoid (PGE2, 8-isoprostane; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) levels as measured in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). Results: There was no significant difference in FeNO values between IPF, non-IPF ILDs and healthy subjects, although some individual patients showed highly elevated FeNO. On the basis of the FeNO signal, it was neither possible to differentiate between the kind of disease nor to detect exacerbations. In addition, there was no correlation between FeNO values and lung function. The investigation of the eicosanoids in EBCs was challenging (PGE2) or unreliable (8-isoprostane), but worked out well in BALF. A significant increase of free 8-isoprostane was observed in BALF, but not in EBCs, of patients with IPF, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and sarcoidosis, possibly indicating severity of oxidative stress. Conclusions: FeNO-measurements are not of diagnostic benefit in different ILDs including IPF. The same holds true for PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in EBC by ELISA.
Project description:Rationale:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease, with high mortality. Currently, the aetiology and the pathology of IPF are poorly understood, with both innate and adaptive responses previously being implicated in the disease pathogenesis. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) and antibodies to Hsp in patients with IPF have been suggested as therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers, respectively. We aimed to study the relationship between the expression of Hsp72 and anti-Hsp72 antibodies in the BAL fluid and serum Aw disease progression in patients with IPF. Methods:A novel indirect ELISA to measure anti-Hsp72 IgG was developed and together with commercially available ELISAs used to detect Hsp72 IgG, Hsp72 IgGAM, and Hsp72 antigen, in the serum and BALf of a cohort of IPF (n = 107) and other interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients (n = 66). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Hsp72 in lung tissue. The cytokine expression from monocyte-derived macrophages was measured by ELISA. Results:Anti-Hsp72 IgG was detectable in the serum and BALf of IPF (n = 107) and other ILDs (n = 66). Total immunoglobulin concentrations in the BALf showed an excessive adaptive response in IPF compared to other ILDs and healthy controls (p = 0.026). Immunohistochemistry detection of C4d and Hsp72 showed that these antibodies may be targeting high expressing Hsp72 type II alveolar epithelial cells. However, detection of anti-Hsp72 antibodies in the BALf revealed that increasing concentrations were associated with improved patient survival (adjusted HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.85; p = 0.003). In vitro experiments demonstrate that anti-Hsp72 complexes stimulate macrophages to secrete CXCL8 and CCL18. Conclusion:Our results indicate that intrapulmonary anti-Hsp72 antibodies are associated with improved outcomes in IPF. These may represent natural autoantibodies, and anti-Hsp72 IgM and IgA may provide a beneficial role in disease pathogenesis, though the mechanism of action for this has yet to be determined.
Project description:Within the non-coding genome landscape, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their secretion within exosomes are a window that could further explain the regulation, the sustaining, and the spread of lung diseases. We present here a compilation of the current knowledge on lncRNAs commonly found in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), or lung cancers. We built interaction networks describing the mechanisms of action for COPD, asthma, and IPF, as well as private networks for H19, MALAT1, MEG3, FENDRR, CDKN2B-AS1, TUG1, HOTAIR, and GAS5 lncRNAs in lung cancers. We identified five signaling pathways targeted by these eight lncRNAs over the lung diseases mentioned above. These lncRNAs were involved in ten treatment resistances in lung cancers, with HOTAIR being itself described in seven resistances. Besides, five of them were previously described as promising biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of asthma, COPD, and lung cancers. Additionally, we describe the exosomal-based studies on H19, MALAT1, HOTAIR, GAS5, UCA1, lnc-MMP2-2, GAPLINC, TBILA, AGAP2-AS1, and SOX2-OT. This review concludes on the need for additional studies describing the lncRNA mechanisms of action and confirming their potential as biomarkers, as well as their involvement in resistance to treatment, especially in non-cancerous lung diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lung cancer coexisting with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can lead to poor prognosis. Telomere-related polymorphisms may be implicated in the pathogenesis of these three lung diseases. As to elucidate the mechanism of lung cancer via IPF or COPD may enable early detection and early treatment of the disease, we firstly examined the association between telomere-related polymorphisms and the risk of IPF and COPD in a case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 572 patients with IPF (n = 155) or COPD (n = 417), who were derived from our on-going cohort study, and controls (n = 379), who were derived from our previous case-control study, were included in this study. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) rs2736100, telomere RNA component (TERC) rs1881984, and oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold containing1 (OBFC1) rs11191865 were genotyped with real-time PCR using TaqMan fluorescent probes. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS:TERT rs2736100 was significantly associated with the risk of IPF; increases in the number of this risk allele increased the risk of IPF (Ptrend = 0.008). Similarly, TERT rs2736100 was associated with the risk of COPD. In regard to the combined action of the three loci, increasing numbers of "at-risk" genotypes increased the risk of IPF in a dose-dependent manner (P trend=0.003). CONCLUSIONS:TERT rs2736100 was associated with the risks of both IPF and COPD in a Japanese population. A combination of the "at-risk" genotypes might be important to identify the population at risk for IPF more clearly.
Project description:Background:Aging is one of the key contributing factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and other chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Here, we determined how aging contributes to the altered gene expression related to mitochondrial function, cellular senescence, and telomeric length processes that play an important role in the progression of COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods:Total RNA from the human lung tissues of non-smokers, smokers, and patients with COPD and IPF were processed and analyzed using a Nanostring platform based on their ages (younger: <55 years and older: >55 years). Results:Several genes were differentially expressed in younger and older smokers, and patients with COPD and IPF compared to non-smokers which were part of the mitochondrial biogenesis/function (HSPD1, FEN1, COX18, COX10, UCP2 & 3), cellular senescence (PCNA, PTEN, KLOTHO, CDKN1C, TNKS2, NFATC1 & 2, GADD45A), and telomere replication/maintenance (PARP1, SIRT6, NBN, TERT, RAD17, SLX4, HAT1) target genes. Interestingly, NOX4 and TNKS2 were increased in the young IPF as compared to the young COPD patients. Genes in the mitochondrial dynamics and quality control mechanisms like FIS1 and RHOT2 were decreased in young IPF compared to their age matched COPD subjects. ERCC1 and GADD45B were higher in young COPD as compared to IPF. Aging plays an important role in various infectious diseases including the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lung immunoblot analysis of smokers, COPD and IPF subjects revealed increased abundance of proteases and receptor/spike protein like TMPRSS2, furin, and DPP4 in association with a slight increase in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 levels. Conclusions:Overall, these findings suggest that altered transcription of target genes that regulate mitochondrial function, cellular senescence, and telomere attrition in the pathobiology of lung aging in COPD and IPF is associated with alterations in SARS-CoV-2 ACE2-TMPRSS2-Furin-DPP4 axis as pharmacological targets for COVID-19.
Project description:Aging is one of the key contributing factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and other chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Cigarette smoke is a major etiological risk factor that has been shown to alter cellular processes involving mitochondrial function, cellular senescence and telomeric length. Here we determined how aging contribute to the alteration in the gene expression of above mentioned cellular processes that play an important role in the progression of COPD and IPF. We hypothesized that aging may differentially alter the expression of mitochondrial, cellular senescence and telomere genes in smokers and patients with COPD and IPF compared to non-smokers. Total RNA from human lung tissues from non-smokers, smokers, and patients with COPD and IPF were processed and analyzed based on their ages (younger: <55 yrs and older: >55 yrs). NanoString nCounter panel was used to analyze the gene expression profiles using a custom designed codeset containing 112 genes including 6 housekeeping controls (mitochondrial biogenesis and function, cellular senescence, telomere replication and maintenance). mRNA counts were normalized, log2 transformed for differential expression analysis using linear models in the limma package (R/Bioconductor). Data from non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD and IPF were analyzed based on the age groups (pairwise comparisons between younger vs. older groups). Several genes were differentially expressed in younger and older smokers, and patients with COPD and IPF compared to non-smokers which were part of the mitochondrial biogenesis/function (HSPD1, FEN1, COX18, COX10, UCP2 & 3), cellular senescence (PCNA, PTEN, KLOTHO, CDKN1C, TNKS2, NFATC1 & 2, GADD45A) and telomere replication/maintenance (PARP1, SIRT6, NBN, TERT, RAD17, SLX4, HAT1) target genes. Interestingly, NOX4 and TNKS2 were increased in the young IPF as compared to the young COPD patients. Genes in the mitochondrial dynamics and other quality control mechanisms like FIS1 and RHOT2 were decreased in young IPF compared to their age matched COPD subjects. ERCC1 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1) and GADD45B were higher in young COPD as compared to IPF. Aging plays an important role in various infectious diseases. Elderly patients with chronic lung disease and smokers were found to have high incidence and mortality rates in the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunoblot analysis in the lung homogenates of smokers, COPD and IPF subjects revealed increased protein abundance of important proteases and spike proteins like TMPRSS2, furin and DPP4 in association with a slight increase in SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 levels. This may further strengthen the observation that smokers, COPD and IPF subjects are more prone to COVID-19 infection. Overall, these findings suggest that altered transcription of target genes that regulate mitochondrial function, cellular senescence, and telomere attrition add to the pathobiology of lung aging in COPD and IPF and other smoking-related chronic lung disease in associated with alterations in SARS-CoV-2 ACE2-TMPRSS2-Furin-DPP4 axis for COVID-19 infection.
Project description:Background: Sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are two most frequent forms of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Cellular and biochemical composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) was shown to reflect the proliferative and fibrotic changes in the local environment in the lung. However, the usefulness of BALf cellular profile evaluation in the diagnosis of ILDs is limited. The aim of the study was a multivariate, molecular, comparative analysis of BALf cells from IPF and sarcoidosis patients. Methods: Transcriptomic measurements were carried out using Affymetrix Human Gene 2.1 ST ArrayStrip in 21 samples: 9 IPF and 12 sarcoidosis. The mRNA expression for the most significantly differentiating genes was evaluated by real time PCR in 32 samples (11 IPF and 21 sarcoidosis). Results: The number of genes differentially expressed between IPF and sarcoidosis groups were 4832 (13359 probesets). Our cluster analysis indicated that sarcoidosis BALf cells are characterized by increased mRNA expression of genes associated with ribosome biogenesis, transcription machinery. Clusters formed by genes with changed mRNA expression in IPF samples were implicated in the processes of cell adhesion and migration, metalloproteinase expression and negative regulation of cell proliferation. PCR verification showed higher expression of ANK3 in the sarcoidosis compared to the IPF group, and higher expression of MMP7 and PPBP in patients with IPF. The GO analysis indicated that predominant biological processes associated with the differential mRNA gene expression of BALf cells were upregulation of neutrophils in IPF and lymphocytes in sarcoidosis. Conclusions: Analysis of BALf from sarcoidosis and IPF showed highly different mRNA profile of cells present in bronchoalveolar compartment and provided new data on the pathobiology of these ILDs. The changes of most important biological processes observed at the molecular level in BALf cells were associated with ribosome biogenesis and proteasome apparatus in sarcoidosis and neutrophilic dysfunction in IPF. Overall design: The microarray experiments were performed using 21 samples: 9 IPF and 12 sarcoidosis.
Project description:Rationale: Aberrant bronchial epithelium-fibroblast communication is essential for the airway remodeling that contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exosomes have emerged as novel mediators of intercellular communication, but their role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of exosomal miR-21 in the dysfunctional epithelium-fibroblast cross-talk caused by CS. Methods: Normal or CS extract (CSE)-treated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were co-cultured with bronchial fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells). Exosomes were obtained from culture media or serum by use of commercial kits. The size distribution and concentration of exosomes were analyzed by nanoparticle tracking analysis using a ZetaView particle tracker from ParticleMetrix. Inhibition of miR-21 levels by tail vein injection of antagomir-21 into mice exposed to CS was used to demonstrate the role of miR-21 in airway remodeling leading to COPD in animals. Results: For MRC-5 cells, co-culture with CSE-treated HBE cells or with exosomes derived from CSE-treated HBE cells resulted in the myofibroblast differentiation phenotype. Exosomal miR-21 was responsible for myofibroblast differentiation through hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) signaling by targeting the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL); HIF-1? transcriptionally regulated the ?-SMA gene. For mice, downregulation of miR-21 prevented CS-induced airway remodeling. The levels of exosomal miR-21 were high in sera of smokers and COPD patients and inversely correlated with FEV1/FVC. Conclusion: We demonstrate that CS triggers the modification of exosome components and identify miR-21 derived from bronchial epithelial cells as a mediator of myofibroblast differentiation through the pVHL/HIF-1? signaling pathway, which has potential value for diagnosis and treatment of COPD.
Project description:The effects of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) were evaluated on tracheal responsiveness and biochemical parameters in guinea pigs model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirty six guinea pigs were divided into 6 groups including: Control, COPD, COPD+intratracheal delivery of PBS (COPD+ITPBS), COPD+intravenous delivery of PBS (COPD+IVPBS), COPD+intratracheal delivery of ASCs (COPD+ITASC) and COPD+intravenous injection of ASCs (COPD+IVASC). COPD was induced by exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 3 months. Cell therapy was then performed and after 14 days, tracheal responsiveness, concentration of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as total and differential white blood cells (WBC) counts were evaluated. Tracheal responsiveness, total WBC counts, neutrophil and eosinophil percentage in BALF as well as concentration of IL-8 in serum and BALF significantly increased but lymphocyte percentage decreased in COPD compared to the control group (P<0.05 to p<0.001). Cell therapy was able to restore the tracheal hyper-responsiveness and the increased IL-8 concentration in serum and BALF of COPD-ITASC but not COPD-IVASC animals (P<0.05 for all cases). Total WBC in BALF also showed a significant decrease in both treated groups and the percentages of eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BALF were reversed in COPD-ITASC compared to COPD-ITPBS animals (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Therefore, intratracheal cell therapy with ASC can decrease tracheal hyperresponsiveness and lung inflammation in cigarette smoke induced-COPD which may be helpful in attenuation of the severity of disease in patients suffering from COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The hedgehog (HH) pathway has been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in genome-wide association studies and recent studies suggest that HH signalling could be altered in COPD. We therefore used minimally invasive endobronchial procedures to assess activation of the HH pathway including the main transcription factor, Gli2, and the ligand, Sonic HH (Shh). METHODS:Thirty non-COPD patients and 28 COPD patients were included. Bronchial brushings, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and bronchial biopsies were obtained from fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Characterization of cell populations and subcellular localization were evaluated by immunostaining. ELISA and RNAseq analysis were performed to identify Shh proteins in BAL and transcripts on lung tissues from non-COPD and COPD patients with validation in an external and independent cohort. RESULTS:Compared to non-COPD patients, COPD patients exhibited a larger proportion of basal cells in bronchial brushings (26?±?11% vs 13?±?6%; p?<?0.0001). Airway basal cells of COPD subjects presented less intense nuclear staining for Gli2 in bronchial brushings and biopsies (p?<?0.05). Bronchial BALF from COPD patients contained lower Shh concentrations than non-COPD BALF (12.5 vs 40.9?pg/mL; p?=?0.002); SHH transcripts were also reduced in COPD lungs in the validation cohort (p?=?0.0001). CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates the feasibility of assessing HH pathway activation in respiratory samples collected by bronchoscopy and identifies impaired bronchial epithelial HH signalling in COPD.