Project description:The Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), the most economically important insect pest on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), also feeds on other Solanaceae, including cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). We used tomato genetic mapping populations to investigate natural variation in CPB resistance. CPB bioassays with 74 tomato lines carrying introgressions of Solanum pennellii in S. lycopersicum cv. M82 identified introgressions from S. pennellii on chromosomes 1 and 6 conferring CPB susceptibility, whereas introgressions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 10 conferred higher resistance. Mapping of CPB resistance using 113 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum cv UC-204B and Solanum galapagense identified significant quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 6 and 8. In each case, the S. galapagense alleles were associated with lower leaf damage and reduced larval growth. Results of both genetic mapping approaches converged on the same region of chromosome 6, which may have important functions in tomato defense against CPB herbivory. Although genetic mapping identified quantitative trait loci encompassing known genes for tomato acyl sugar and glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, experiments with acyl sugar near-isogenic lines and transgenic GAME9 glycoalkaloid-deficient and overproducing lines showed no significant effect of these otherwise insect-defensive metabolites on CPB performance.
Project description:Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping is a powerful technique for dissecting the genetic basis of traits and species differences. Established tomato mapping populations between domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its more distant interfertile relatives typically follow a near isogenic line (NIL) design, such as the S. pennellii Introgression Line (IL) population, with a single wild introgression per line in an otherwise domesticated genetic background. Here, we report on a new advanced backcross QTL mapping resource for tomato, derived from a cross between the M82 tomato cultivar and S. pennellii This so-called Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL) population is comprised of a mix of BC2 and BC3 lines, with domesticated tomato as the recurrent parent. The BIL population is complementary to the existing S. pennellii IL population, with which it shares parents. Using the BILs, we mapped traits for leaf complexity, leaflet shape, and flowering time. We demonstrate the utility of the BILs for fine-mapping QTL, particularly QTL initially mapped in the ILs, by fine-mapping several QTL to single or few candidate genes. Moreover, we confirm the value of a backcrossed population with multiple introgressions per line, such as the BILs, for epistatic QTL mapping. Our work was further enabled by the development of our own statistical inference and visualization tools, namely a heterogeneous hidden Markov model for genotyping the lines, and by using state-of-the-art sparse regression techniques for QTL mapping.
Project description:Tomato late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is a major threat to tomato production in cool and wet environments. Intensified outbreaks of late blight have been observed globally from the 1980s, and are associated with migration of new and more aggressive populations of P. infestans in the field. The objective of this study was to reassess late blight resistance in the wild tomato accession L3708 (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) against pathogens of different aggressiveness. An F2:3 genetic mapping population was developed using L3708 as the paternal parent. Two isolates of P. infestans, Pi39A and Pi733, were used for inoculation. Pi733 is a highly aggressive genotype that defeats three known late blight resistance genes, Ph-1, Ph-2, and Ph-5t in tomato. In contrast, Pi39A is a less aggressive genotype that defeats only Ph-1. Restriction site Associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq) technology was used to massively sequence 90 bp nucleotides adjacent to both sides of PstI restriction enzyme cutting sites in the genome for all individuals in the genetic mapping population. The RAD-seq data were used to construct a genetic linkage map containing 440 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified a new disease-resistant QTL specific to Pi733 on chromosome 2. The Ph-3 gene located on chromosome 9 could be detected whichever isolates were used. This study demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of RAD-Seq technology for conducting a QTL mapping experiment using an F2:3 mapping population, which allowed the identification of a new late blight resistant QTL in tomato.
Project description:Genome-wide association mapping is an efficient way to identify quantitative trait loci controlling the variation of phenotypes, but the approach suffers severe limitations when one is studying inbred crops like cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Such crops exhibit low rates of molecular polymorphism and high linkage disequilibrium, which reduces mapping resolution. The cherry type tomato (S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) genome has been described as an admixture between the cultivated tomato and its wild ancestor, S. pimpinellifolium. We have thus taken advantage of the properties of this admixture to improve the resolution of association mapping in tomato. As a proof of concept, we sequenced 81 DNA fragments distributed on chromosome 2 at different distances in a core collection of 90 tomato accessions, including mostly cherry type tomato accessions. The 81 Sequence Tag Sites revealed 352 SNPs and indels. Molecular diversity was greatest for S. pimpinellifolium accessions, intermediate for S. l. cerasiforme accessions, and lowest for the cultivated group. We assessed the structure of molecular polymorphism and the extent of linkage disequilibrium over genetic and physical distances. Linkage disequilibrium decreased under r(2) = 0.3 within 1 cM, and minimal estimated value (r(2) = 0.13) was reached within 20 kb over the physical regions studied. Associations between polymorphisms and fruit weight, locule number, and soluble solid content were detected. Several candidate genes and quantitative trait loci previously identified were validated and new associations detected. This study shows the advantages of using a collection of S. l. cerasiforme accessions to overcome the low resolution of association mapping in tomato.
Project description:Solanum pimpinellifolium has high breeding potential for fruit quality traits and has been used as a donor in tomato breeding programs. Unlocking the genetic potential of S. pimpinellifolium requires high-throughput polymorphism identification protocols for QTL mapping and introgression of favourable alleles into cultivated tomato by both positive and background selection.In this study we identified SNP loci using a genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach in an IBL mapping population derived from the cross between a high yielding fresh market tomato and S. pimpinellifolium (LA1589) as the recurrent and donor parents, respectively. A total of 120,983,088 reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencing platform. From these reads 448,539 sequence tags were generated. A majority of the sequence tags (84.4%) were uniquely aligned to the tomato genome. A total of 3.125 unique SNP loci were identified as a result of tag alignment to the genome assembly and were used in QTL analysis of 11 fruit quality traits. As a result, 37 QTLs were identified. S. pimpinellifolium contributed favourable alleles for 16 QTLs (43.2%), thus confirming the high breeding potential of this wild species.The present work introduced a set of SNPs at sufficiently high density for QTL mapping in populations derived from S. pimpinellifolium (LA1589). Moreover, this study demonstrated the high efficiency of the GBS approach for SNP identification, genotyping and QTL mapping in an interspecific tomato population.
Project description:In aiming to decipher the genetic control of shoot architecture in pepper (Capsicum spp.), the allelic late-flowering mutants E-252 and E-2537 were identified. These mutants exhibit multiple pleiotropic effects on the organization of the sympodial shoot. Genetic mapping and sequence analysis indicated that the mutants are disrupted at CaJOINTLESS, the orthologue of the MADS-box genes JOINTLESS and SVP in tomato and Arabidopsis, respectively. Late flowering of the primary and sympodial shoots of Cajointless indicates that the gene functions as a suppressor of vegetative growth in all shoot meristems. While CaJOINTLESS and JOINTLESS have partially conserved functions, the effect on flowering time and on sympodial development in pepper, as well as the epistasis over FASCICULATE, the homologue of the major determinant of sympodial development SELF-PRUNING, is stronger than in tomato. Furthermore, the solitary terminal flower of pepper is converted into a structure composed of flowers and leaves in the mutant lines. This conversion supports the hypothesis that the solitary flowers of pepper have a cryptic inflorescence identity that is suppressed by CaJOINTLESS. Formation of solitary flowers in wild-type pepper is suggested to result from precocious maturation of the inflorescence meristem.
Project description:The history of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) improvement includes genetic bottlenecks, wild species introgressions, and divergence into distinct market classes. This history makes tomato an excellent model to investigate the effects of selection on genome variation. A combination of linkage mapping in two F(2) populations and physical mapping with emerging genome sequence data was used to position 434 PCR-based markers including SNPs. Three-hundred-and-forty markers were used to genotype 102 tomato lines representing wild species, landraces, vintage cultivars, and contemporary (fresh market and processing) varieties. Principal component analysis confirmed genetic divergence between market classes of cultivated tomato (P <0.0001). A genome-wide survey indicated that linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays over 6-8 cM when all cultivated tomatoes, including vintage and contemporary, were considered together. Within contemporary processing varieties, LD decayed over 6-14 cM, and decay was over 3-16 cM within fresh market varieties. Significant inter-chromosomal (gametic phase) LD was detected in both fresh market and processing varieties between chromosomes 2 and 3, and 2 and 4, but in distinct chromosomal locations for each market class. Additional LD was detected between chromosomes 3 and 4, 3 and 11, and 4 and 6 in fresh market varieties and chromosomes 3 and 12 in processing varieties. These results suggest that breeding practices for market specialization in tomato have led to a genetic divergence between fresh market and processing types.
Project description:The molecular interactions between tomato and Cladosporium fulvum have been an important model for molecular plant pathology. Complex genetic loci on tomato chromosomes 1 and 6 harbor genes for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum, encoding receptor like-proteins that perceive distinct Cladosporium fulvum effectors and trigger plant defenses. Here, we report classical mapping strategies for loci in tomato accessions that respond to Cladosporium fulvum effector Ecp5, which is very sequence-monomorphic. We screened 139 wild tomato accessions for an Ecp5-induced hypersensitive response, and in five accessions, the Ecp5-induced hypersensitive response segregated as a monogenic trait, mapping to distinct loci in the tomato genome. We identified at least three loci on chromosomes 1, 7 and 12 that harbor distinct Cf-Ecp5 genes in four different accessions. Our mapping showed that the Cf-Ecp5 in Solanum pimpinellifolium G1.1161 is located at the Milky Way locus. The Cf-Ecp5 in Solanum pimpinellifolium LA0722 was mapped to the bottom arm of chromosome 7, while the Cf-Ecp5 genes in Solanum lycopersicum Ontario 7522 and Solanum pimpinellifolium LA2852 were mapped to the same locus on the top arm of chromosome 12. Bi-parental crosses between accessions carrying distinct Cf-Ecp5 genes revealed putative genetically unlinked suppressors of the Ecp5-induced hypersensitive response. Our mapping also showed that Cf-11 is located on chromosome 11, close to the Cf-3 locus. The Ecp5-induced hypersensitive response is widely distributed within tomato species and is variable in strength. This novel example of convergent evolution could be used for choosing different functional Cf-Ecp5 genes according to individual plant breeding needs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Investigation of tomato genetic resources is a crucial issue for better straight evolution and genetic studies as well as tomato breeding strategies. Traditional Vesuviano and San Marzano varieties grown in Campania region (Southern Italy) are famous for their remarkable fruit quality. Owing to their economic and social importance is crucial to understand the genetic basis of their unique traits. RESULTS: Here, we present the draft genome sequences of tomato Vesuviano and San Marzano genome. A 40x genome coverage was obtained from a hybrid Illumina paired-end reads assembling that combines de novo assembly with iterative mapping to the reference S. lycopersicum genome (SL2.40). Insertions, deletions and SNP variants were carefully measured. When assessed on the basis of the reference annotation, 30% of protein-coding genes are predicted to have variants in both varieties. Copy genes number and gene location were assessed by mRNA transcripts mapping, showing a closer relationship of San Marzano with reference genome. Distinctive variations in key genes and transcription/regulation factors related to fruit quality have been revealed for both cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: The effort performed highlighted varieties relationships and important variants in fruit key processes useful to dissect the path from sequence variant to phenotype.
Project description:Despite the collection and availability of abundant tomato genome sequences, PCR-based markers adapted to large scale analysis have not been developed in tomato species. Therefore, using public genome sequence data in tomato, we developed three types of DNA markers: expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (TES markers), genome-derived SSR markers (TGS markers) and EST-derived intronic polymorphism markers (TEI markers). A total of 2,047 TES, 3,510 TGS and 674 TEI markers were established and used in the polymorphic analysis of a cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 'LA925' and its wild relative Solanum pennellii 'LA716', parents of the Tomato-EXPEN 2000 mapping population. The polymorphic ratios between parents revealed by the TES, TGS and TEI markers were 37.3, 22.6 and 80.0%, respectively. Those showing polymorphisms were used to genotype the Tomato-EXPEN 2000 mapping population, and a high-density genetic linkage map composed of 1,433 new and 683 existing marker loci was constructed on 12 chromosomes, covering 1,503.1 cM. In the present map, 48% of the mapped TGS loci were located within heterochromatic regions, while 18 and 21% of TES and TEI loci, respectively, were located in heterochromatin. The large number of SSR and SNP markers developed in this study provide easily handling genomic tools for molecular breeding in tomato. Information on the DNA markers developed in this study is available at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/tomato/.