Project description:Notwithstanding several research efforts in the past years, robust and replicable molecular signatures for autism spectrum disorders from peripheral blood remain elusive. The available literature on blood transcriptome in ASD suggests that through accurate experimental design it is possible to extract important information on the disease pathophysiology at the peripheral level. Here we exploit the availability of a resource for molecular biomarkers in ASD, the Italian Autism Network (ITAN) collection, for the investigation of transcriptomic signatures in ASD based on a discordant sibling pair design. Whole blood samples from 75 discordant sibling pairs selected from the ITAN network where submitted to RNASeq analysis and data analyzed by complementary approaches. Overall, differences in gene expression between affected and unaffected siblings were small. In order to assess the contribution of differences in the relative proportion of blood cells between discordant siblings, we have applied two different cell deconvolution algorithms, showing that the observed molecular signatures mainly reflect changes in peripheral blood immune cell composition, in particular NK cells. The results obtained by the cell deconvolution approach are supported by the analysis performed by WGCNA. Our report describes the largest differential gene expression profiling in peripheral blood of ASD subjects and controls conducted by RNASeq. The observed signatures are consistent with the hypothesis of immune alterations in autism and an increased risk of developing autism in subjects exposed to prenatal infections or stress. Our study also points to a potential role of NMUR1, HMGB3, and PTPRN2 in ASD.
Project description:Identification of blood-based metabolic changes might provide early and easy-to-obtain biomarkers.We included 127 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 121 control subjects with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker-confirmed diagnosis (cutoff tau/amyloid ? peptide 42: 0.52). Mass spectrometry platforms determined the concentrations of 53 amine compounds, 22 organic acid compounds, 120 lipid compounds, and 40 oxidative stress compounds. Multiple signatures were assessed: differential expression (nested linear models), classification (logistic regression), and regulatory (network extraction).Twenty-six metabolites were differentially expressed. Metabolites improved the classification performance of clinical variables from 74% to 79%. Network models identified five hubs of metabolic dysregulation: tyrosine, glycylglycine, glutamine, lysophosphatic acid C18:2, and platelet-activating factor C16:0. The metabolite network for apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 negative AD patients was less cohesive compared with the network for APOE ?4 positive AD patients.Multiple signatures point to various promising peripheral markers for further validation. The network differences in AD patients according to APOE genotype may reflect different pathways to AD.
Project description:Changes to lipid metabolism are tightly associated with the onset and pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipids are complex molecules comprising many isomeric and isobaric species, necessitating detailed analysis to enable interpretation of biological significance. Our expanded targeted lipidomics platform (569 species across 32 classes) allows for detailed lipid separation and characterisation. In this study we examined peripheral samples of two cohorts (AIBL, n?=?1112 and ADNI, n?=?800). We are able to identify concordant peripheral signatures associated with prevalent AD arising from lipid pathways including; ether lipids, sphingolipids (notably GM3 gangliosides) and lipid classes previously associated with cardiometabolic disease (phosphatidylethanolamine and triglycerides). We subsequently identified similar lipid signatures in both cohorts with future disease. Lastly, we developed multivariate lipid models that improved classification and prediction. Our results provide a holistic view between the lipidome and AD using a comprehensive approach, providing targets for further mechanistic investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease results from a neurodegenerative process that starts well before the diagnosis can be made. New prognostic or diagnostic markers enabling early intervention into the disease process would be highly valuable. Environmental and lifestyle factors largely modulate the disease risk and may influence the pathogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. As environmental and lifestyle factors may affect multiple tissues of the body, we hypothesized that the disease-associated DNA methylation signatures are detectable in the peripheral blood of discordant twin pairs. RESULTS:Comparison of 23 disease discordant Finnish twin pairs with reduced representation bisulfite sequencing revealed peripheral blood DNA methylation differences in 11 genomic regions with at least 15.0% median methylation difference and FDR adjusted p value ??0.05. Several of the affected genes are primarily associated with neuronal functions and pathologies and do not display disease-associated differences in gene expression in blood. The DNA methylation mark in ADARB2 gene was found to be differentially methylated also in the anterior hippocampus, including entorhinal cortex, of non-twin cases and controls. Targeted bisulfite pyrosequencing of the DNA methylation mark in ADARB2 gene in 62 Finnish and Swedish twin pairs revealed that, in addition to the disease status, DNA methylation of this region is influenced by gender, age, zygosity, APOE genotype, and smoking. Further analysis of 120 Swedish twin pairs indicated that this specific DNA methylation mark is not predictive for Alzheimer's disease and becomes differentially methylated after disease onset. CONCLUSIONS:DNA methylation differences can be detected in the peripheral blood of twin pairs discordant for Alzheimer's disease. These DNA methylation signatures may have value as disease markers and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. We found no evidence that the DNA methylation marks would be associated with gene expression in blood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential importance of the associated genes in neuronal functions and to validate the prognostic or diagnostic value of the individual marks or marker panels.
Project description:Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb) exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways.Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern.The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following non-comparable subset Series which represent two different studies: GSE4226: Alzheimer's Disease peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression GSE4227: Alzheimer's disease and GSTM3 [Val255] single nucleotide polymorphism linkage with peripheral BMC expression Keywords: SuperSeries Refer to individual Series
Project description:Several studies have linked maternal asthma, excess BMI, and low vitamin D status with increased risk of Preeclampsia (PE) development. Given prior evidence in the literature and our observations from the subjects in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART), we hypothesized that PE, maternal asthma, vitamin D insufficiency, and excess body mass index (BMI) might share both peripheral blood and placental gene signatures that link these conditions together. We used samples collected in the VDAART to investigate relationships between these four conditions and gene expression patterns in peripheral blood obtained at early pregnancy. We identified a core set of differentially expressed genes in all comparisons between women with and without these four conditions and confirmed them in two separate sets of samples. We confirmed the differential expression of the shared gene signatures in the placenta from an independent study of preeclampsia cases and controls and constructed the preeclampsia module using protein-protein interaction networks. CXC chemokine genes showed the highest degrees of connectivity and betweenness centrality in the peripheral blood and placental modules. The shared gene signatures demonstrate the biological pathways involved in preeclampsia at the pre-clinical stage and may be used for the prediction of preeclampsia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early diagnosis of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Endomyocardial biopsies are typically amyloid positive when cardiomyopathy is suspected, but this disease manifestation is generally diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is often difficult because patients exhibit apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy, but have a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for an additional early diagnostic strategy for TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>Global peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles from 263 tafamidis-treated and untreated V30M Familiar Amyloid Neuropathy patients, asymptomatic V30M carriers, and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls without TTR mutations were used to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic patients. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent, as well as male- and female-specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers. These signatures differentiated symptomatic patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers with >80% accuracy. There was a global downregulation of the eIF2 pathway and its associated genes in all symptomatic FAP patients. We also demonstrated that the molecular scores based on these signatures significantly trended toward normalized values in an independent cohort of 46 FAP patients after only 3 months of tafamidis treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study identifies novel molecular signatures that differentiate symptomatic FAP patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers as well as affected males and females. We envision using this approach, initially in parallel with amyloid biopsies, to identify individuals who are asymptomatic gene carriers that may convert to FAP patients. Upon further validation, peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiling could become an independent early diagnostic. This quantitative gene expression signature for symptomatic FAP could also become a biomarker to demonstrate significant disease-modifying effects of drugs and drug candidates. For example, when new disease modifiers are being evaluated in a FAP clinical trial, such surrogate biomarkers have the potential to provide an objective, quantitative and mechanistic molecular diagnostic of disease response to therapy.
Project description:Blood-based test has been considered as a promising way to diagnose and study Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the changed proportions of the leukocytes under disease states could confound the aberrant expression signals observed in mixed-cell blood samples. We have previously proposed a method, Ref-REO, to detect the leukocyte specific expression alterations from mixed-cell blood samples. In this study, by applying Ref-REO, we detect 42 and 45 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between AD and normal peripheral whole blood (PWB) samples in two datasets, respectively. These DEGs are mainly associated with AD-associated functions such as Wnt signaling pathways and mitochondrion dysfunctions. They are also reproducible in AD brain tissue, and tend to interact with the reported AD-associated biomarkers and overlap with targets of AD-associated PWB miRNAs. Moreover, they are closely associated with aging and have severer expression alterations in the younger adults with AD. Finally, diagnostic signatures are constructed from these leukocyte specific alterations, whose area under the curve (AUC) for predicting AD is higher than 0.73 in the two AD PWB datasets. In conclusion, gene expression alterations in leukocytes could be extracted from AD PWB samples, which are closely associated with AD progression, and used as a diagnostic signature of AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents an urgent public health mandate. AD is no longer considered a neural-centric disease; rather, a plethora of recent studies strongly implicate a critical role played by neuroinflammation in the pathogeneses of AD and other neurodegenerative conditions. A close functional connection between the immune system and central nervous system is increasingly recognized. In late-onset AD, aging represents the most significant risk factor. Here, from an immunological perspective, we summarize the prominent molecular and cellular changes in the periphery of aging individuals and AD patients. Moreover, we review the knowledge gained in the past several years that implicate specific arms of the peripheral immune system and other types of immune responses in modulating AD progression. Taken together, these findings collectively emphasize a dynamic role of a concert of brain-extrinsic, peripheral signals in the aging and degenerative processes in the CNS. We believe that a systematic view synthesizing the vast amounts of existing results will help guide the development of next-generation therapeutics and inform future directions of AD investigation.