Project description:Evidence suggests the vaginal microbiota (VM) may influence risk of persistent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical carcinogenesis. Established cytology biobanks, typically collected with a cytobrush, constitute a unique resource to study such associations longitudinally. It is plausible that compared to rayon swabs; the most commonly used sampling devices, cytobrushes may disrupt biofilms leading to variation in VM composition. Cervico-vaginal samples were collected with cytobrush and rayon swabs from 30 women with high-grade cervical precancer. Quantitative PCR was used to compare bacterial load and Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene used to compare VM composition. Cytobrushes collected a higher total bacterial load. Relative abundance of bacterial species was highly comparable between sampling devices (R2?=?0.993). However, in women with a Lactobacillus-depleted, high-diversity VM, significantly less correlation in relative species abundance was observed between devices when compared to those with a Lactobacillus species-dominant VM (p?=?0.0049). Cytobrush and swab sampling provide a comparable VM composition. In a small proportion of cases the cytobrush was able to detect underlying high-diversity community structure, not realized with swab sampling. This study highlights the need to consider sampling devices as potential confounders when comparing multiple studies and datasets.
Project description:The number of members in the genus Gammapapillomavirus of Family Papillomaviridae has recently been expanding most rapidly. The aim of this study was to characterize a novel human gammapapillomavirus type identified in a vaginal swab from a 25-year-old pregnant woman suffering from vaginitis.Viral metagenomics method was used to detect the viral sequences in 88 vaginal swab samples collected from 88 pregnant women with vaginitis. A novel papillomavirus, named HPV-ZJ01 (GenBank no. KX082661), was detected in one sample and its complete genome sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced by Sanger walking. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete genome and the L1 protein of HPV-ZJ01 and other representative human papillomaviruses were done, respectively. Further PCR screening was performed in vaginal swabs (n?=?135), cervical smears (n?=?40) and cervical cancer tissues (n?=?40) using nested-PCR primers designed based on HPV-ZJ01 sequence to investigate the prevalence of HPV-ZJ01.The genome of HPV-ZJ01 is 7,358 bp in length with a GC content of 37.8 %. HPV-ZJ01 was predicted to contain six open reading frames (E6, E7, E1, E2, L2, and L1) and a non-coding long control region (LCR). The genome shared the highest overall similarity to HPV-166, with 70.6 % nucleotide sequence identity while its L1 gene shared the highest nucleotide similarity to HPV-162, with 71.1 % sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that HPV-ZJ01 belongs to a novel HPV type in the Gamma-PV genus, species Gamma-19, already containing HPV161, HPV162 and HPV166. PCR screening results indicated that none of the other samples were positive for HPV-ZJ01 except the original HPV-ZJ01 positive vaginal swab specimen.The genome sequence of a novel type of species Gamma-19 HPV was characterized. The screening PCR results suggested that HPV-ZJ01 is not associated with any of the cervical cancer samples tested. In order to confirm the prevalence and disease association, if any, for HPV-ZJ01, a further study with different sample types and a larger sample size is needed.
Project description:Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. A PCR test using vaginal swab samples for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed to add T. vaginalis infection to the growing list of STDs that can be detected by DNA amplification techniques. A primer set, BTUB 9/2, was designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin genes of T. vaginalis. All strains (15 of 15) of T. vaginalis tested were successfully detected by PCR giving a single predicted product of 112 bp in gel electrophoresis. No such targeted product was amplified with DNA from Trichomonas tenax, Trichomonas gallinae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix sulcatus, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Entamoeba histolytica. An optimal analytical sensitivity of one T. vaginalis organism per PCR was achieved. Culture, performed with the Inpouch TV culture system, was examined daily with a light microscope to identify T. vaginalis. Twenty-three of 350 (6.6%) vaginal swab samples from women attending an army medical clinic were culture positive for T. vaginalis. Of these culture positive specimens, PCR detected 22 of 23 (96%) with primer set BTUB 9/2, and wet preparation detected only 12 of 23 (52%). Seventeen specimens were BTUB 9/2-PCR positive and culture negative. Ten of these discordant specimens were determined to be as true positive by PCR using primer sets TVA 5-1/6 and/or AP65 A/B, which target different regions in the T. vaginalis genome, and seven were determined to be false positive. The sensitivity of BTUB 9/2-PCR was 97% and the specificity was 98%. The sensitivities of culture and wet preparation were 70 and 36%, respectively. The diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR is a sensitive and specific method that could be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by using molecular amplification methods.
Project description:The composition of the vaginal microbiome, including both the presence of pathogens involved in sexually transmitted infections (STI) as well as commensal microbiota, has been shown to have important associations for a woman's reproductive and general health. Currently, healthcare providers cannot offer comprehensive vaginal microbiome screening, but are limited to the detection of individual pathogens, such as high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV), the predominant cause of cervical cancer. There is no single test on the market that combines HPV, STI, and microbiome screening. Here, we describe a novel inclusive vaginal health assay that combines self-sampling with sequencing-based HPV detection and genotyping, vaginal microbiome analysis, and STI-associated pathogen detection. The assay includes genotyping and detection of 14 hrHPV types, 5 low-risk HPV types (lrHPV), as well as the relative abundance of 31 bacterial taxa of clinical importance, including Lactobacillus, Sneathia, Gardnerella, and 3 pathogens involved in STI, with high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. For each of these taxa, reference ranges were determined in a group of 50 self-reported healthy women. The HPV sequencing portion of the test was evaluated against the digene High-Risk HPV HC2 DNA test. For hrHPV genotyping, agreement was 95.3% with a kappa of 0.804 (601 samples); after removal of samples in which the digene hrHPV probe showed cross-reactivity with lrHPV types, the sensitivity and specificity of the hrHPV genotyping assay were 94.5% and 96.6%, respectively, with a kappa of 0.841. For lrHPV genotyping, agreement was 93.9% with a kappa of 0.788 (148 samples), while sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 92.9%, respectively. This novel assay could be used to complement conventional cervical cancer screening, because its self-sampling format can expand access among women who would otherwise not participate, and because of its additional information about the composition of the vaginal microbiome and the presence of pathogens.
Project description:A complete genome sequence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) named as HPV-ujs-21015 was determined by viral metagenomic and PCR methods. The complete genome is 7354?bp in length with GC content of 41.7%, of which the genome was predicted to contain six ORFs (Open Reading Frame, ORF) coding for four early proteins (E7, E1, E4, and E2) and two late proteins (L1 and L2). Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome and the L1 protein showed that HPV-ujs-21015 belongs to a type 214 member within genus Gamma-6 papillomavirus. It is the first complete genome of Gamma-6 papillomavirus discovered from pregnant women in China.
Project description:In this study, we evaluated the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and the vaginal microbiome. Participants were recruited in Nigeria between April and August 2012. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by deep sequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4) on Illumina MiSeq and HPV was identified using the Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test. We used exact logistic regression models to evaluate the association between community state types (CSTs) of vaginal microbiota and hrHPV infection, weighted UniFrac distances to compare the vaginal microbiota of individuals with prevalent hrHPV to those without prevalent hrHPV infection, and the Linear Discriminant Analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm to characterize bacteria associated with prevalent hrHPV infection. We observed four CSTs: CST IV-B with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in 50% of participants; CST III (dominated by L. iners) in 39·2%; CST I (dominated by L. crispatus) in 7·9%; and CST VI (dominated by proteobacteria) in 2·9% of participants. LEfSe analysis suggested an association between prevalent hrHPV infection and a decreased abundance of Lactobacillus sp. with increased abundance of anaerobes particularly of the genera Prevotella and Leptotrichia in HIV-negative women (P < 0·05). These results are hypothesis generating and further studies are required.
Project description:Infections by HIV increase the risk of acquiring secondary viral and bacterial infections and methods are needed to determine the spectrum of co-infections for proper treatment. We used rolling circle amplification (RCA) and Ion Proton sequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of 20 HIV positive women from South Africa. A total of 46 different human papillomavirus (HPV) types were found, many of which are not detected by existing genotyping assays. Moreover, the complete genomes of two novel HPV types were determined. Abundance of HPV infections was highly correlated with real-time PCR estimates, indicating that the RCA-Proton method can be used for quantification of individual pathogens. We also identified a large number of other viral, bacterial and parasitic co-infections and the spectrum of these co-infections varied widely between individuals. Our method provides rapid detection of a broad range of pathogens and the ability to reconstruct complete genomes of novel infectious agents.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Y chromosome DNA from male epithelial and sperm cells was detected in vaginal samples after unprotected sex in experimental studies. We assessed the strength of this association in an observational setting to examine the utility of Y chromosome DNA as a biomarker of recent sexual behaviors in epidemiological studies. METHODS:The HPV (human papillomavirus) Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity cohort study enrolled 502 women attending a university or college in Montréal, Canada, and their male partners from 2005 to 2010. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to test women's baseline vaginal samples for Y chromosome DNA and assessed which sexual behaviors were independent predictors of Y chromosome DNA positivity and quantity with logistic and negative binomial regression. RESULTS:Y chromosome DNA positivity decreased from 77% in women in partnerships reporting vaginal sex 0 to 1 day ago to 13% in women in partnerships reporting last vaginal sex of 15 or more days ago (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.36). The mean proportion of exfoliated vaginal sample cells with Y chromosome DNA was much lower for women who reported always using condoms (0.01%) than for women who reported never using condoms (2.07%) (adjusted ratio, 26.8; 95% confidence interval, 8.9-80.5). No association was found with reported oral/digital sex frequency or concurrency of partnerships. CONCLUSIONS:Y chromosome DNA quantity is strongly associated with days since last vaginal sex and lack of condom use in observational settings. Y chromosome DNA quantity may prove useful as a correlate of recent vaginal sex in observational studies lacking data on sexual behavior, such as surveillance studies of human papillomavirus infection prevalence.
Project description:Background:Vaginal dysbiosis may paly role in increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This study aims to explore potential vaginal microbiome biomarkers, to predict persistent high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+, and to find novel treatment targets for HPV infection. Methods:A total of 329 women aged 20-69 were enrolled in this study, including 59 with cervical persistent HPV infection irrespective of cytology status (group A), 139 with incident HPV infection (group B), and 131 without HPV infection (group C). Vaginal microbiome composition was determined by sequencing of barcoded 16S rDNA gene fragments (V4) on Illumina HiSeq2500. Results:In genus level, the relative abundance of Prevotella, Porphyromonas and Enterococcus were significantly the highest in group A, while Bacteroides was the lowest in group A. In species level, we found the relative abundance of Prevotella bivia, Enterococcus durans and Porphyromonas uenonis were the highest in group A while Lactobacillus iners was significantly under-represented in group A than the other two, and Prevotella disiens was over-represented in group C than the other two groups. Conclusions:A predominance of Prevotella bivia, Enterococcus durans and Porphyromonas uenonis with a concomitant paucity of Lactobacillus iners and Prevotella disiens may relate to HPV persistent infection. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Prevotella bivia being over 0.05554% with Prevotella disiens being under 0.02196% may be a good predictor for appearance CIN2+ for those diagnosed with the other 12 types of HR-HPV persistent infection but normal ThinPrep cytology test (TCT) testing. The exact molecular mechanism of the vaginal microbiome in the course of persistent HR-HPV infection and cervical neoplasia should be further explored. Future research should include intervention of vaginal microbiome composition to reverse the course of HR-HPV infection and the natural history of cervical neoplasia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the changes of vaginal microbiota during cervical carcinogenesis in women with high-risk human papillomavirus infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Vaginal microbiota was analyzed using next-generation sequencing in women with normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or cervical cancer. RESULTS:A marked decrease of Lactobacillus crispatus was found in the CIN/cancer groups compared with that in the normal group. The diversity of microorganisms increased in patients with CIN or cervical cancer with HPV infection. Atopobium vaginae (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.15-16.32), Dialister invisus (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.20-19.94), Finegoldia magna (OR 6.00, 95% CI 1.08-33.27), Gardnerella vaginalis (OR 7.43, 95% CI 1.78-31.04), Prevotella buccalis (OR 11.00, 95% CI 2.00-60.57), and Prevotella timonensis (OR 6.00, 95% CI 1.46-24.69) were significantly associated with the risk of CIN 2/3 or cervical cancer. CONCLUSION:Women with the CIN and cervical cancer showed a high diversity in vaginal microbiota. Depletion of Lactobacillus crispatus and increased abundance of anaerobic bacteria were detected in women with cervical disease.