Project description:Activation of T cells, a major fraction of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCS), is essential for the immune response. Genotoxic stress resulting from ionizing radiation (IR) and chemical agents, including anticancer drugs, has serious impact on T cells and, therefore, on the immune status. Here we compared the sensitivity of non-stimulated (non-proliferating) vs. CD3/CD28-stimulated (proliferating) PBLC to IR. PBLCs were highly sensitive to IR and, surprisingly, stimulation to proliferation resulted in resistance to IR. Radioprotection following CD3/CD28 activation was observed in different T-cell subsets, whereas stimulated CD34+ progenitor cells did not become resistant to IR. Following stimulation, PBLCs showed no significant differences in the repair of IR-induced DNA damage compared with unstimulated cells. Interestingly, ATM is expressed at high level in resting PBLCs and CD3/CD28 stimulation leads to transcriptional downregulation and reduced ATM phosphorylation following IR, indicating ATM to be key regulator of the high radiosensitivity of resting PBLCs. In line with this, pharmacological inhibition of ATM caused radioresistance of unstimulated, but not stimulated, PBLCs. Radioprotection was also achieved by inhibition of MRE11 and CHK1/CHK2, supporting the notion that downregulation of the MRN-ATM-CHK pathway following CD3/CD28 activation results in radioprotection of proliferating PBLCs. Interestingly, the crosslinking anticancer drug mafosfamide induced, like IR, more death in unstimulated than in stimulated PBLCs. In contrast, the bacterial toxin CDT, damaging DNA through inherent DNase activity, and the DNA methylating anticancer drug temozolomide induced more death in CD3/CD28-stimulated than in unstimulated PBLCs. Thus, the sensitivity of stimulated vs. non-stimulated lymphocytes to genotoxins strongly depends on the kind of DNA damage induced. This is the first study in which the killing response of non-proliferating vs. proliferating T cells was comparatively determined. The data provide insights on how immunotherapeutic strategies resting on T-cell activation can be impacted by differential cytotoxic effects resulting from radiation and chemotherapy.
Project description:Variation in individuals' adaptive immune response is believed to influence susceptibility to complex diseases in humans. The genetic basis of such variation is poorly understood. We measured gene expression from resting and activated CD4+ T cells derived from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals. We activated the primary T cells with anti-CD3/CD28 beads. We collected peripheral blood from each human donor. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Ficoll, and negatively selected for CD4+ T cells using RosettaSep. We then either left cells unstimulated or stimulated them with beads conjugated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. Cells from 15 individuals were harvested at up to 3 time points (0hr, 4hr or 48hr), lysed and RNA isolated to be profiled on microarray.
Project description:Variation in individuals' adaptive immune response is believed to influence susceptibility to complex diseases in humans. The genetic basis of such variation is poorly understood. We measured gene expression from resting and activated CD4+ T cells derived from the peripheral blood of 348 healthy individuals. We activated the primary T cells with anti-CD3/CD28 beads. We collected peripheral blood from each human donor. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Ficoll, and negatively selected for CD4+ T cells using RosettaSep. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Ficoll, and negatively selected for CD4+ T cells using RosettaSep. We then either left cells unstimulated or stimulated them with beads conjugated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 either without additional cytokines, or with IFNb, or with Th17 cocktail. Cells were harvest at 0hr, 4hr (anti-CD3/CD28 +/- IFNb) or 48hr (anti-CD3/CD28 +/- Th17), lysed and RNA isolated to be profiled on Nanostring.
Project description:KY1044 is a human monoclonal IgG1 that selectively binds to Inducible T cell CO-stimulator (ICOS). The co-stimulatory effect of KY1044-stimulated human T cells was analysed by RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Purified pre-activated (ICOS+ve) T cells were stimulated with either KY1044 and anti-CD3 or anti-CD3 alone and cells were harvested for RNA seq after 6hrs. Kallisto transcript abundance are provided in the absence of raw sequence reads.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Invasive infections of the central nervous system (CNS) or digestive tract caused by commensal fungi of the genus Candida are rare and life-threatening. The known risk factors include acquired and inherited immunodeficiencies, with patients often displaying a history of multiple infections. Cases of meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both caused by Candida species remain unexplained. OBJECTIVE:We studied 5 previously healthy children and adults with unexplained invasive disease of the CNS, digestive tract, or both caused by Candida species. The patients were aged 39, 7, 17, 37, and 26 years at the time of infection and were unrelated, but each was born to consanguineous parents of Turkish (2 patients), Iranian, Moroccan, or Pakistani origin. Meningoencephalitis was reported in 3 patients, meningoencephalitis associated with colitis was reported in a fourth patient, and the fifth patient had colitis only. METHODS:Inherited caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) deficiency was recently reported in otherwise healthy patients with other forms of severe disease caused by Candida, Trichophyton, Phialophora, and Exophiala species, including meningoencephalitis but not colitis caused by Candida and Exophiala species. Therefore we sequenced CARD9 in the 5 patients. RESULTS:All patients were found to be homozygous for rare and deleterious mutant CARD9 alleles: R70W and Q289* for the 3 patients with Candida albicans-induced meningoencephalitis, R35Q for the patient with meningoencephalitis and colitis caused by Candida glabrata, and Q295* for the patient with Candida albicans-induced colitis. Regardless of their levels of mutant CARD9 protein, the patients' monocyte-derived dendritic cells responded poorly to CARD9-dependent fungal agonists (curdlan, heat-killed C albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Exophiala dermatitidis). CONCLUSION:Invasive infections of the CNS or digestive tract caused by Candida species in previously healthy children and even adults might be caused by inherited CARD9 deficiency.
Project description:Candida is the most common human fungal pathogen and causes systemic infections that require neutrophils for effective host defense. Humans deficient in the C-type lectin pathway adaptor protein CARD9 develop spontaneous fungal disease that targets the central nervous system (CNS). However, how CARD9 promotes protective antifungal immunity in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we show that a patient with CARD9 deficiency had impaired neutrophil accumulation and induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid despite uncontrolled CNS Candida infection. We phenocopied the human susceptibility in Card9-/- mice, which develop uncontrolled brain candidiasis with diminished neutrophil accumulation. The induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines is significantly impaired in infected Card9-/- brains, from both myeloid and resident glial cellular sources, whereas cell-intrinsic neutrophil chemotaxis is Card9-independent. Taken together, our data highlight the critical role of CARD9-dependent neutrophil trafficking into the CNS and provide novel insight into the CNS fungal susceptibility of CARD9-deficient humans.
Project description:Fungal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The innate immune system senses fungal pathogens through a family of Syk-coupled C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), which signal through the conserved immune adapter Card9. Although Card9 complexes are essential for antifungal defense in humans and mice, the mechanisms that couple CLR-proximal events to Card9 control are not well defined. Here, using a proteomic approach, we identified Vav proteins as key activators of the Card9 pathway. Vav1, Vav2 and Vav3 cooperate downstream of Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and Mincle to selectively engage Card9 for NF-κB control and proinflammatory gene transcription but are not involved in MAPK activation. Although Vav family members show functional redundancy, Vav1/2/3 triple-deficient cells are severely impaired for NF-κB and cytokine responses upon stimulation with CLR agonists or hyphae, and Vav1/2/3-/- mice phenocopy Card9-/- animals with extreme susceptibility to fungi and rapid mortality upon Candida albicans infection. In this context, Vav3 is the single most important Vav in mice, and a polymorphism in human VAV3 is associated with susceptibility to candidemia in patients. Our results reveal a molecular mechanism for CLR-mediated Card9 regulation that controls innate immunity to fungal infections. Overall design: RNA profiles of unstimulated or Curdlan-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from wild type (WT) and Vav1/2/3-/- (VAV KO) mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:Purpose: The aim of this study is the evaluation of differential gene expression profile by RNA-seq in response to anti-CD3 treatment in CD3 cells obtained from blood samples of healthy donors, to achieve a better understanding of the antibodies molecular mechanisms of action. In this study T cells were treated in the complex PBMC milieu, in a tentative to mimetize the natural ambient that occurs in a clinical administration of therapeutic anti-CD3. Methods: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified from healthy volunteers blood and were cultured in the presence of the monoclonal antibody OKT3 or a recombinant fragment of humanized anti-CD3 (FvFcR) or recombinant fragment chimeric anti-CD3 (FvFcM). After 72 hours, CD3+ T cells were isolated by negative selection using magnetic beads and total RNA was extracted with the RNeasy kit (Qiagen). Paired-end cDNA reads (150bp) were generated using the HiSeq 2500 Sequencing system (Illumina) located at the NGS Overseas Project Manager, Next Generation Sequencing Division, Macrogen, Inc. (Seoul, Korea). Quality check of the paired-end reads was performed using FASTQC. The reads were aligned to the human genome refence downloaded from the UCSC Genome Browser database using open source segemehl_0_2_0. The aligned files were ordered and indexed using Samtools followed by read count using HTSeq-count. Statistical analysis was done using the R environment for statistical computing. Gene model quantification were performed using the Bioconductor package DESeq2. Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, we mapped about 50 million sequence reads per sample to the human genome and identified 7089 transcripts in the T cell stimulated with OKT3, 2425 transcripts with FvFc R and 1406 with FvFc M. RNA-seq data confirmed stable expression of some known housekeeping genes, and 3 of these were validated with qRT-PCR. We found 860 genes there are equally regulated among the treatments, considering a padj ≤ 0.05. Altered expression of 35 genes was confirmed with qRT-PCR, demonstrating the high degree of sensitivity of the RNA-seq method. Conclusions: In conclusion, we had used a deep transcriptome sequencing method for comparing three anti-CD3 antibodies in terms of gene ontology enrichment and immunological markers expression. The present data showed that both recombinant antibodies induced a compatible expression profile, suggesting they could be tested as substitute in human pre-clinical trials. Moreover, the proposed methodology is amenable to be more generally applied for molecular comparison purposes. Overall design: Comparison of differentially expressed genes in T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 antibodies.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Double Negative (CD4-/CD8-) T-cells isolated from SIV infected Sooty Mangebys. DN T-cells were stimulated through the T-Cell receptor using anti CD3/CD28 antibodies for 4 hours and compared to unstimulated DN T-cells. Two condition experiment, Stimulated vs Unstimulated. 4 animals tested, each with Stim vs Unstim, a dye flip of Stim vs Unstim, Stim vs Stim and Unstim vs Unstim.