Project description:The knowledge-base of emerging drug resistance profiles in children exposed to abacavir-based antiretroviral regimens in South Africa is very limited. This study investigated the suitability of didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens for children in the context of antiretroviral drug resistance patterns emerging after 1st-line virologic failure.A retrospective dataset of 354 antiretroviral drug resistant genotypes from children failing either abacavir (n = 81) or stavudine (n = 273) based 1st-line regimens, was analysed. Samples were sent to the HIV genotyping laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, for routine testing. Pol sequences were submitted to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database for genotypic predictions.Children were exposed to abacavir or stavudine-based 1st-line regimens for an average of 21 and 36 months, respectively. The frequency of reduced susceptibility to didanosine was substantial in the abacavir-exposed group (69.1%).This reduced susceptibility was commonly attributed to L74V/I (n = 44) and to a lesser extent K65R (n = 10) mutations. Didanosine resistance was observed in 43.2% of patients exposed to stavudine-based regimens. In contrast, most children remained susceptible to stavudine regardless of exposure to abacavir (77.8%) or stavudine (74.7%). At least 80% of children remained susceptible to zidovudine irrespective of stavudine or abacavir-exposure. The presence of the K65R mutation was more common after abacavir pressure (12.3% vs 1.8%).Analysis revealed that didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens have limitations for South African children, given the high frequency of mutations that confer cross-resistance to didanosine; especially after abacavir-exposure. This data has influenced South African paediatric treatment guidelines, which now recommend zidovudine-based 2nd-line regimens.
Project description:A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4-17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tenofovir (TDF) has replaced stavudine (d4T) as the preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in first-line regimens in South Africa, but limited information is available on the resistance patterns that develop after the introduction of TDF. This study investigated the antiretroviral drug resistance patterns in South African HIV-1 subtype C-infected patients failing stavudine- (d4T) and tenofovir- (TDF) based first-line regimens and assess the suitability of TDF as the preferred first-line nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). METHODS:Resistance patterns of HIV-1 from 160 adult patients virologically failing TDF- (n = 80) and d4T- (n = 80) based first-line regimens were retrospectively analyzed. The pol gene was sequenced using an in-house protocol and mutations were analysed using the IAS-USA 2014 Drug Resistance Mutation list. RESULTS:Compared to d4T-exposed patients (n = 7), patients failing on a TDF-containing regimen (n = 43) were almost 5 times more likely to present with a K65R mutation (aRR 4.86 95% CI 2.29 - 10.34). Y115F was absent in the d4T group, and detected in 13.8% (n = 11) of TDF-exposed patients, p = 0.0007. Virus from 9 of the 11 patients (82.0%) who developed the Y115F mutation also developed K65R. Intermediate or high-level resistance to most NRTIs was common in the TDF-treatment group, but these patients twice more likely to remain susceptible to AZT as compared to those exposed to d4T (aRR 2.09 95% CI 1.13 - 3.90). CONCLUSION:The frequency of the TDF induced K65R mutation was higher in our setting compared to non-subtype C dominated countries. However, despite the higher frequency of cross-resistance to NRTIs, most patients remained susceptible to AZT, which is reflected in the South African treatment guidelines that recommend AZT as an essential component of second-line regimens.
Project description:Better understanding of drug resistance patterns in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to inform public health policies in high prevalence settings. The aim of this study was to characterise the acquired drug resistance in HIV-infected children failing first-line ART in a decentralised rural HIV programme.Plasma samples were collected from 101 paediatric patients (?15 yrs of age) identified as failing ART. RNA was extracted from the plasma, reverse transcribed and a 1.3 kb region of the pol gene was amplified and sequenced using Sanger sequencing protocols. Sequences were edited in Geneious and drug resistance mutations were identified using the RegaDB and the Stanford resistance algorithms. The prevalence and frequency of mutations were analysed together with selected clinical and demographic data in STATA v11.A total of 101 children were enrolled and 89 (88%) were successfully genotyped; 73 on a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen and 16 on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen at the time of genotyping. The majority of patients on an NNRTI regimen (80%) had both nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and NNRTI resistance mutations. M184V and K103N were the most common mutations amongst children on NNRTI-based and M184V among children on PI-based regimens. 30.1% had one or more thymidine analogue mutation (TAM) and 6% had ?3 TAMs. Only one child on a PI-based regimen harboured a major PI resistance mutation.Whilst the patterns of resistance were largely predictable, the few complex resistance patterns seen with NNRTI-based regimens and the absence of major PI mutations in children failing PI-based regimens suggest the need for wider access to genotypic resistance testing in this setting.
Project description:Historically, in HIV patients, the K65R mutation and thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) have been reported to rarely coexist. We retrospectively reviewed genotype data from paired samples in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Nigerian patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapies containing zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF). Samples for each patient were taken at initial confirmed virological failure ?1000 copies/ml (S1) and then at the latest available sample with viral load ?1000 copies/ml before switch to second line (S2). Among 103 patients failing AZT, 19 (18.4%) had TAM-1s, 29 (28.2%) TAM-2s, and 21 (20.4%) mixed TAMs by S2. In contrast, in the 87 patients failing TDF, drug resistance mutations at S2 included K65R in 56 (64.4%), TAM-1s in 1 (1.1%), and TAM-2s in 25 patients (28.7%). Interestingly, 30.4% of patients with K65R in our study developed TAMs. These were exclusively K219E?±?D67N and were not predicted to confer a resistance cost to future AZT-containing regimens.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:HIV genotyping is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries due to infrastructure requirements and cost. We compared genotype resistance testing in patients with virologic failure, by amplification of HIV pol gene, followed by "in-house" sequencing and commercial sequencing. METHODS:Remnant plasma samples from adults and children failing second-line ART were amplified and sequenced using in-house and commercial di-deoxysequencing, and analyzed in Harare, Zimbabwe and at Stanford, U.S.A, respectively. HIV drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database. RESULTS:Twenty-six of 28 samples were amplified and 25 were successfully genotyped. Comparison of average percent nucleotide and amino acid identities between 23 pairs sequenced in both laboratories were 99.51 (±0.56) and 99.11 (±0.95), respectively. All pairs clustered together in phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis identified 6/23 pairs with mutation discordances resulting in differences in phenotype, but these did not impact future regimens. CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrate our ability to produce good quality drug resistance data in-house. Despite discordant mutations in some sequence pairs, the phenotypic predictions were not clinically significant.
Project description:The present study aimed to evaluate the total progression-free survival (PFS) time of the 1st-line chemotherapy (CHT)/2nd-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and 1st-line TKI/2nd-line CHT therapeutic regimens. Data from patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, who had received both TKI and platinum CHT were retrieved from the Shandong Cancer Hospital (Jinan, China) database. A total of 89 patients were included, 50 of whom were treated with the 1st-line CHT/2nd-line TKI regimen and the remaining 39 patients underwent a 1st-line TKI/2nd-line CHT regimen. The differences in total PFS time between the two regimens were analyzed. The median total PFS time was 14.28 months with the 1st-line CHT/2nd-line TKI regimen and 17.77 months with the 1st-line TKI/2nd-line CHT regimen (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.66; P=0.886). A significant difference in PFS time was revealed between the two strategies when comparing only the 1st-line or 2nd-line treatments (all P<0.001). The objective response rate (RR) was 52.0% for those treated with 1st-line CHT/2nd-line TKI and 38.5% for the reverse regimen. After adjusting for associated factors, the odds ratio for the RR was 2.77 (95% CI: 0.77-9.90; P=0.117). The current results revealed that there was no significant difference between the total PFS time of patients with NSCLC undergoing the 1st-line CHT/2nd-line TKI regimen compared with patients with NSCLC undergoing the 1st-line TKI/2nd-line CHT regimen.
Project description:Evaluation of drug resistance by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotyping has proven to be useful for the selection of drug combinations with maximum antiretroviral activity. We compared three genotyping methods for identification of mutations known to confer drug resistance in the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease genes of HIV type 1 (HIV-1). The HIV-GenotypR method (GenotypR; Specialty Laboratories, Inc., Santa Monica, Calif.) with the ABI 377 DNA sequencer (Applied Biosystems Inc.), the HIV PRT GeneChip assay (GeneChip; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, Calif.), and the HIV-1 RT Line Probe Assay (LiPA; Innogenetics, Alpharetta, Ga.) were used to genotype plasma samples from HIV-infected patients attending the University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics and the Mayo Clinic. At the time of analysis, patients were failing combination therapy (n = 18) or were treatment naive (n = 6). Forty codons of the RT and protease genes were analyzed by GenotypR and GeneChip for resistance-associated mutations. LiPA analyzed seven RT codons for mutations. Each sample was genotyped by all three assays, and each assay was subjected to pairwise comparisons. At least 92% of the codons tested (by the three assays) in paired comparisons were concordant. GenotypR and GeneChip demonstrated 96.6% concordance over the 40 codons tested. GenotypR identified slightly more mutations than GeneChip and LiPA; GeneChip identified all primary mutations that corresponded to failing treatment regimens. Each assay identified at least 84% of the mutations identified by the other assays. Mutations that were discordant between the assays mainly comprised secondary mutations and natural polymorphisms. The assays had better concordance for mutations that corresponded to current failing regimens, present in the more predominant viral quasispecies. In the treatment-naive patients, GenotypR, GeneChip, and LiPA mainly identified wild-type virus. Only the LiPA identified K70R, a possible transmitted zidovudine resistance mutation, in the RT gene of a treatment-naive patient. We conclude that although discrepancies in results exist between assays, each assay showed a similar capacity to identify potentially clinically relevant mutations related to patient treatment regimens.
Project description:Changes in HIV tropism from R5 to non-R5 or development of drug resistance is often associated with virologic failure in patients treated with maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist. We sought to examine changes in HIV envelope sequences and inferred tropism in patients who did not respond to maraviroc-based regimens. We selected 181 patients who experienced early virologic failure on maraviroc-containing therapy in the MOTIVATE trials. All patients had R5 HIV by the original Trofile assay before entry. We used population-based sequencing methods and the geno2pheno algorithm to examine changes in tropism and V3 sequences at the time of failure. Using deep sequencing, we assessed whether V3 sequences observed at failure emerged from preexisting subpopulations. From population genotyping data at failure, 90 patients had R5 results, and 91 had non-R5 results. Of the latter group, the geno2pheno false-positive rate (FPR) value fell from a median of 20 at screening to 1.1 at failure. By deep sequencing, the median percentage of non-R5 variants in these patients rose from 1.4% to 99.5% after a median of 4 weeks on maraviroc. In 70% of cases, deep sequencing could detect a pretreatment CXCR4-using subpopulation, which emerged at failure. Overall, there were two distinct patterns of failure of maraviroc. Patients failing with R5 generally had few V3 substitutions and low non-R5 prevalence by deep sequencing. Patients with non-R5 HIV who were failing developed very-high-prevalence non-R5 HIV (median, 99%) and had very low geno2pheno values.
Project description:Most patients failing antiretroviral treatment in Uganda continue to fail their treatment regimen even if a dominant drug-resistant HIV-1 genotype is not detected. In a recent retrospective study, we observed that approximately 30% of HIV-infected individuals in the Joint Clinical Research Centre (Kampala, Uganda) experienced virologic failure with a susceptible HIV-1 genotype based on standard Sanger sequencing. Selection of minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (not detectable by Sanger sequencing) under antiretroviral therapy pressure can lead to a shift in the viral quasispecies distribution, becoming dominant members of the virus population and eventually causing treatment failure. Here, we used a novel HIV-1 genotyping assay based on deep sequencing (DeepGen) to quantify low-level drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in 33 patients failing a first-line antiretroviral treatment regimen in the absence of drug-resistant mutations, as screened by standard population-based Sanger sequencing. Using this sensitive assay, we observed that 64% (21/33) of these individuals had low-frequency (or minority) drug-resistant variants in the intrapatient HIV-1 population, which correlated with treatment failure. Moreover, the presence of these minority HIV-1 variants was associated with higher intrapatient HIV-1 diversity, suggesting a dynamic selection or fading of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants from the viral quasispecies in the presence or absence of drug pressure, respectively. This study identified low-frequency HIV drug resistance mutations by deep sequencing in Ugandan patients failing antiretroviral treatment but lacking dominant drug resistance mutations as determined by Sanger sequencing methods. We showed that these low-abundance drug-resistant viruses could have significant consequences for clinical outcomes, especially if treatment is not modified based on a susceptible HIV-1 genotype by Sanger sequencing. Therefore, we propose to make clinical decisions using more sensitive methods to detect minority HIV-1 variants.