Project description:The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Floating treatment wetland aided nutrient removal from agricultural runoff using two wetland species" (Spangler et al., 2018). This Data in Brief article provides data on concentrations of common ions, macro- and micro-nutrients and metals every other week during a floating treatment wetland (FTW) mesocosm experiment, and macro- and micro-nutrient contents in cumulative plant tissues, data on continuously monitored water temperature, and nitrogen and phosphorus removal curves assessed every other week. The full data set is made available to enable critical or extended analysis of the research.
Project description:The Special Issue entitled: "Development of Food Chemistry, Natural Products, and Nutrition Research" is focused on the recent development of food chemistry research, including natural products' sources and nutrition research, with the objectives of triggering interest towards new perspectives related to foods and opening a novel horizon for research in the food area. The published papers collected in this Special Issue are studies that refer to different aspects of food, ranging from food chemistry and analytical aspects, to composition, natural products, and nutrition, all examined from different perspectives and points of view. Overall, this Special Issue gives a current picture of the main topics of interest in the research and proposes studies and analyses that may prompt and address the efforts of research in the food area to find novel foods and novel applications and stimulate an environmentally-friendly approach for the re-use of the by-products of the agro-food area. This notwithstanding, the main challenge is currently addressed to achieve a full comprehension of the mechanisms of action of food components, the nutrients, outlining their high potential impact as preventive and/or therapeutic tools, not only as a source of macro- and/or micro-nutrients, which are necessary for all the metabolic and body functions.
Project description:To construct this database, we integrate the nutritional content of 62 crops and 5 livestock categories to estimate the amount of 21 macro and micro-nutrients (including energy) that were produced from agriculture in each Brazilian municipality during the last three decades. Additionally, we allocate these nutrients according to their share in the food system (for example, human food, animal feed, export etc.). It is a unique data source on macro and micro-nutrients availability for human consumption and animal feed, but also regarding another aspects of the food system, such as international agricultural trade, energy production (for example, in the form of ethanol) or post-harvest and post-processing losses, from local to national levels, in a wide time frame of 30 years. This database can be used in scientific research regarding food and nutrition security and in the construction of indicators for monitoring food and agricultural programs and policies that aim at the promotion of food and nutritional security. Also, it has the potential to enable broader analysis of the food system as whole in terms of food stability and resilience.
Project description:Abandoned cattle (Bos taurus) kraals are sources of habitat heterogeneity in dystrophic semi-arid African savannas with a strong positive effect on soil nutrients and plant productivity. However, little is known regarding how macro-invertebrate assemblages vary between abandoned kraals and the surrounding savanna matrix. We tested whether herbaceous biomass and basal and aerial covers and soil nutrients have an effect on aboveground and belowground macro-invertebrate assemblages. Twelve abandoned kraals were contrasted with their paired control plots for soil characteristics, herbaceous productivity, and macro-invertebrate assemblages in Save Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe. Abandoned kraals had significantly higher concentrations of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) as well as herbaceous biomass and basal and aerial covers than control plots. Both aboveground and belowground macro-invertebrate species richness were higher on abandoned kraals. However, only belowground macro-invertebrate diversity (Shannon H' and Hill number 1) was significantly higher on abandoned kraals. Soil nutrients and herbaceous productivity had positive and significant correlations with the dominant taxa (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Isoptera, and Myriapoda) on abandoned kraals. These results add to the growing body of evidence that abandoned kraals exert significant effects on savanna spatial heterogeneity years later, with implications on ecosystem processes and functioning.
Project description:The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worldwide, or of the other species of the genus. To guide informed use of moringa, we surveyed protein, macro-, and micro- nutrients across 67 common garden samples of 12 Moringa taxa, including 23 samples of M. oleifera. Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, an M. concanensis X oleifera hybrid, and M. longituba were highest in protein, with M. ruspoliana having the highest calcium levels. A protein-dry leaf mass tradeoff may preclude certain breeding possibilities, e.g. maximally high protein with large leaflets. These findings identify clear priorities and limitations for improved moringa varieties with traits such as high protein, calcium, or ease of preparation.
Project description:Dietary macro-nutrients (i.e., carbohydrates, protein, and fat) are important for bee larval development and, thus, colony health and fitness. To which extent different diets (varying in macro-nutrient composition) affect adult bees and whether they can thrive on nectar as the sole amino acid source has, however, been little investigated. We investigated how diets varying in protein concentration and overall nutrient composition affected consumption, longevity, and breeding behavior of the buff-tailed bumble bee, <i>Bombus terrestris</i> (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Queenless micro-colonies were fed either natural nutrient sources (pollen), nearly pure protein (i.e., the milk protein casein), or sucrose solutions with low and with high essential amino acid content in concentrations as can be found in nectar. We observed micro-colonies for 110 days. We found that longevity was highest for pure pollen and lowest for pure sucrose solution and sucrose solution supplemented with amino acids in concentrations as found in the nectar of several plant species. Adding higher concentrations of amino acids to sucrose solution did only slightly increase longevity compared to sucrose alone. Consequently, sucrose solution with the applied concentrations and proportions of amino acids or other protein sources (e.g., casein) alone did not meet the nutritional needs of healthy adult bumble bees. In fact, longevity was highest and reproduction only successful in micro-colonies fed pollen. These results indicate that, in addition to carbohydrates and protein, adult bumble bees, like larvae, need further nutrients (e.g., lipids and micro-nutrients) for their well-being. An appropriate nutritional composition seemed to be best provided by floral pollen, suggesting that pollen is an essential dietary component not only for larvae but also for adult bees.
Project description:People with obesity in Romania are often under medical supervision, which is aimed to decrease body weight and treat accompanying metabolic disorders and cardiovascular implications. However, there is limited information regarding the implementation of dietary recommendations in adults with obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of reaching the recommended intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients in adults with obesity under medical supervision. Individuals with obesity, recruited in the context of a study with a larger scope (NutriGen ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02837367), who were under medical supervision underwent four 24 h recalls in order to assess daily food intakes. Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes were computed, and the prevalence of reaching recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for each nutrient was calculated. The majority of subjects did not meet the recommended intakes for most nutrients. Energy from fat exceeded the threshold of 35% recommended intake, even in the lowest quartile of energy intake. The micronutrients with less than 5% of individuals reaching the RDAs were vitamin D, vitamin E, fluoride, and omega-3 fatty acids for both males and females, and choline, magnesium, and potassium in females. The burden of inadequate nutrition in individuals with obesity should be acknowledged and properly addressed within efforts to reduce obesity rates and associated disorders.
Project description:A survey of mushrooms was conducted in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China, in the rainy season (May to October) of 2012, 2013, and 2014, during which 16 specimens of Termitomyces were collected. Preliminary macro- and micro-characteristics, together with ITS sequence data, showed that four of the specimens belonged to a new species (Termitomyces fragilis), while the other 12 belonged to T. aurantiacus, T. eurrhizus, T. globules, T. microcarpus, and T. bulborhizus. In this paper, T. fragilis is introduced as a species new to science based on morphological characterization and phylogenetic analyses. Macro- and micro- morphological descriptions, color photographs and line drawings of the new species, and a phylogenetic tree to show the placement of the new species are provided. T. fragilis is then compared with other closely related taxa in the genus Termitomyces.
Project description:The limitations in the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic waste products pose a challenge to the development of bioengineered bone of clinically relevant size. This paper reports the design and characterization of hierarchical macro/microporous scaffolds made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid and nanohydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA). These scaffolds were produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) techniques. Macrochannels with diameters of ~300 ?m, ~380 ?m, and ~460 ?m were generated by embedding porous 3D-plotted polyethylene glycol (PEG) inside PLGA/nHA/1,4-dioxane or PLGA/1,4-dioxane solutions, followed by PEG extraction using deionized (DI) water. We have used an I-optimal design of experiments (DoE) and the response surface analysis (JMP® software) to relate three responses (scaffold thickness, porosity, and modulus) to the four experimental factors affecting the scaffold macro/microstructures (e.g., PEG strand diameter, PLGA concentration, nHA content, and TIPS temperature). Our results indicated that a PEG strand diameter of ~380 ?m, a PLGA concentration of ~10% w/v, a nHA content of ~10% w/w, and a TIPS temperature around -10°C could generate scaffolds with a porosity of ~90% and a modulus exceeding 4 MPa. This paper presents the steps for the I-optimal design of these scaffolds and reports on their macro/microstructures, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).