Project description:The body of human genomic and proteomic evidence continues to grow at ever-increasing rates, while annotation efforts struggle to keep pace. A surprisingly small fraction of human genes have clear, documented associations with specific functions, and new functions continue to be found for characterized genes. Here we assembled an integrated collection of diverse genomic and proteomic data for 21,341 human genes and make quantitative associations of each to 4333 Gene Ontology terms. We combined guilt-by-profiling and guilt-by-association approaches to exploit features unique to the data types. Performance was evaluated by cross-validation, prospective validation, and by manual evaluation with the biological literature. Functional-linkage networks were also constructed, and their utility was demonstrated by identifying candidate genes related to a glioma FLN using a seed network from genome-wide association studies. Our annotations are presented-alongside existing validated annotations-in a publicly accessible and searchable web interface.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To compare dementia incidence of African-American and Yoruba cohorts aged ?70 years enrolled in 1992 and 2001. METHODS:African-Americans residing in Indianapolis and Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria without dementia were enrolled in 1992 and 2001 and evaluated every 2-3 years until 2009. The cohorts consist of 1440 African-Americans, 1774 Yoruba in 1992 and 1835 African-Americans and 1895 Yoruba in the 2001 cohorts aged ?70 years. RESULTS:In African-Americans, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) incidence rates were significantly lower in 2001 than 1992 for all age groups except the oldest group. The overall standardized annual dementia incidence rates were 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2%-4.1%) in the 1992 cohort and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.2%-1.7%) in the 2001 cohort. There was no significant difference in dementia or AD incidence between the Yoruba cohorts. DISCUSSION:Future research is needed to explore the reasons for the differential changes in incidence rates in these two populations.
Project description:The prevalence of CD36 deficiency in East Asian and African populations suggests that the causal variants are under selection by severe malaria. Previous analysis of data from the International HapMap Project indicated that a CD36 haplotype bearing a nonsense mutation (T1264G; rs3211938) had undergone recent positive selection in the Yoruba of Nigeria. To investigate the global distribution of this putative selection event, we genotyped T1264G in 3420 individuals from 66 populations. We confirmed the high frequency of 1264G in the Yoruba (26%). However, the 1264G allele is less common in other African populations and absent from all non-African populations without recent African admixture. Using long-range linkage disequilibrium, we studied two West African groups in depth. Evidence for recent positive selection at the locus was demonstrable in the Yoruba, although not in Gambians. We screened 70 variants from across CD36 for an association with severe malaria phenotypes, employing a case-control study of 1350 subjects and a family study of 1288 parent-offspring trios. No marker was significantly associated with severe malaria. We focused on T1264G, genotyping 10,922 samples from four African populations. The nonsense allele was not associated with severe malaria (pooled allelic odds ratio 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.89-1.12; P = 0.98). These results suggest a range of possible explanations including the existence of alternative selection pressures on CD36, co-evolution between host and parasite or confounding caused by allelic heterogeneity of CD36 deficiency.
Project description:Chemotherapeutic agents are used in the treatment of many cancers, yet variable resistance and toxicities among individuals limit successful outcomes. Several studies have indicated outcome differences associated with ancestry among patients with various cancer types. Using both traditional SNP-based and newly developed gene-based genome-wide approaches, we investigated the genetics of chemotherapeutic susceptibility in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 83 African Americans, a population for which there is a disparity in the number of genome-wide studies performed. To account for population structure in this admixed population, we incorporated local ancestry information into our association model. We tested over 2 million SNPs and identified 325, 176, 240, and 190 SNPs that were suggestively associated with cytarabine-, 5'-deoxyfluorouridine (5'-DFUR)-, carboplatin-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, respectively (p?10(-4)). Importantly, some of these variants are found only in populations of African descent. We also show that cisplatin-susceptibility SNPs are enriched for carboplatin-susceptibility SNPs. Using a gene-based genome-wide association approach, we identified 26, 11, 20, and 41 suggestive candidate genes for association with cytarabine-, 5'-DFUR-, carboplatin-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, respectively (p?10(-3)). Fourteen of these genes showed evidence of association with their respective chemotherapeutic phenotypes in the Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria (p<0.05), including TP53I11, COPS5 and GAS8, which are known to be involved in tumorigenesis. Although our results require further study, we have identified variants and genes associated with chemotherapeutic susceptibility in African Americans by using an approach that incorporates local ancestry information.
Project description:Angiogenesis is a host-mediated mechanism in disease pathophysiology. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is a major determinant of angiogenesis, and a comprehensive annotation of the functional variation in this pathway is essential to understand the genetic basis of angiogenesis-related diseases. We assessed the allelic heterogeneity of gene expression, population specificity of cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), and eQTL function in luciferase assays in CEU and Yoruba people of Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI) HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines in 23 resequenced genes. Among 356 cis-eQTLs, 155 and 174 were unique to CEU and YRI, respectively, and 27 were shared between CEU and YRI. Two cis-eQTLs provided mechanistic evidence for two genome-wide association study findings. Five eQTLs were tested for function in luciferase assays and the effect of two KRAS variants was concordant with the eQTL effect. Two eQTLs found in each of PRKCE, PIK3C2A, and MAP2K6 could predict 44%, 37%, and 45% of the variance in gene expression, respectively. This is the first analysis focusing on the pattern of functional genetic variation of the VEGF pathway genes in CEU and YRI populations and providing mechanistic evidence for genetic association studies of diseases for which angiogenesis plays a pathophysiologic role.
Project description:Understanding the timing and character of the expansion of Homo sapiens out of Africa is critical for inferring the colonization and admixture processes that underpin global population history. It has been argued that dispersal out of Africa had an early phase, particularly ~130-90 thousand years ago (ka), that reached only the East Mediterranean Levant, and a later phase, ~60-50?ka, that extended across the diverse environments of Eurasia to Sahul. However, recent findings from East Asia and Sahul challenge this model. Here we show that H. sapiens was in the Arabian Peninsula before 85?ka. We describe the Al Wusta-1 (AW-1) intermediate phalanx from the site of Al Wusta in the Nefud desert, Saudi Arabia. AW-1 is the oldest directly dated fossil of our species outside Africa and the Levant. The palaeoenvironmental context of Al Wusta demonstrates that H. sapiens using Middle Palaeolithic stone tools dispersed into Arabia during a phase of increased precipitation driven by orbital forcing, in association with a primarily African fauna. A Bayesian model incorporating independent chronometric age estimates indicates a chronology for Al Wusta of ~95-86?ka, which we correlate with a humid episode in the later part of Marine Isotope Stage 5 known from various regional records. Al Wusta shows that early dispersals were more spatially and temporally extensive than previously thought. Early H. sapiens dispersals out of Africa were not limited to winter rainfall-fed Levantine Mediterranean woodlands immediately adjacent to Africa, but extended deep into the semi-arid grasslands of Arabia, facilitated by periods of enhanced monsoonal rainfall.
Project description:Prolongation of the electrocardiographic QT interval, a measure of cardiac repolarization, predisposes one to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Since NOS1AP, a regulator of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, was discovered in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) as a novel target that modulates cardiac repolarization, several loci have been linked to the QT interval in studies (QTGEN and QTSCD) of European descendents. However, there has been no GWAS of the QT interval in Asian populations. We conducted a GWAS with regard to the QT interval in Korea Association Resource (KARE [n = 6,805]) cohorts. Replication studies in independent populations of Korean (n = 4,686) and Japanese (n = 2,687) groups validated the association between a SNP, rs13017846, which maps to near SLC8A1 (sodium/calcium exchanger 1 precursor, overall p = 8.0 × 10(-14)), and the QT interval. The minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs13017846 varies widely between ethnicities-0.053 in Europeans (HapMap CEU [Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe from the Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain collection] samples) versus 0.080 in Africans (HapMap YRI [Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria] samples)-whereas a MAF of 0.500 has been reported in Asians (HapMap HCB [Han Chinese in Beijing, China] and JPT [Japanese in Tokyo, Japan] samples). This might explain why this locus has not been identified in Europeans in previous studies.
Project description:Functional annotation of genetic variants including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variations (CNV) promises to greatly improve our understanding of human complex traits. Previous transcriptomic studies involving individuals from different global populations have investigated the genetic architecture of gene expression variation by mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Functional interpretation of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified enrichment of eQTL in top signals from GWAS of human complex traits. The SCAN (SNP and CNV Annotation) database was developed as a web-based resource of genetical genomic studies including eQTL detected in the HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line samples derived from apparently healthy individuals of European and African ancestry. Considering the critical roles of epigenetic gene regulation, cytosine modification quantitative trait loci (mQTL) are expected to add a crucial layer of annotation to existing functional genomic information. Here, we describe the new features of the SCAN database that integrate comprehensive mQTL mapping results generated in the HapMap CEU (Caucasian residents from Utah, USA) and YRI (Yoruba people from Ibadan, Nigeria) LCL samples and demonstrate the utility of the enhanced functional annotation system.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The persistently high prevalence of girl-child marriage remains a public health and developmental concern in Nigeria. Despite global campaign against the practice and policy efforts by Nigerian government, the prevalence remains unabated. This study investigates the prevalence and the influence of ethnicity and religious affiliation on the girl-child marriage among female adolescents in Nigeria. METHODS:Data of 7804 girls aged 15-19?years extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey were used. Ethnic groups were classified into five: major Northern ethnic group (Hausa/Fulani); Northern ethnic minorities; two major Southern ethnic groups (Yoruba and Igbo), and Southern ethnic minorities. The prevalence of girl-child marriage was determined for the five ethnic groups and individually for each ethnic minority group. Relationships between ethnicity and religious affiliation on girl-child marriage were explored using Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusting for residence, education and wealth quintile. RESULTS:Child marriage was higher for the Northern majority ethnic group of Hausa/Fulani (54.8%) compared to the two major Southern ethnic groups (3.0-3.6%) and aggregated Northern ethnic minorities (25.7%) and Southern minorities (5.9%). However, overall, the less known Northern ethnic minority groups of Kambari (74.9%) and Fulfude (73.8%) recorded the highest prevalence. Compared to the major Southern ethnic group of Yoruba, the adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of child marriage was significantly higher for Northern ethnic minorities (AHR?=?2.50; 95% C.I.?=?1.59-3.95) and Northern major ethnicity (AHR?=?3.67, 95% C.I.?=?2.33-5.77). No significant difference was recorded among Southern ethnic groups. Girls affiliated to other religions (Muslim and traditionalist) had higher child-marriage risks compared to Christians (AHR?=?2.10; 95% C.I.?=?1.54-2.86). CONCLUSION:Ethnicity and religion have independent associations with girl-child marriage in Nigeria; interventions must address culturally-laden social norms that vary by ethnic groups as well as religious-related beliefs.