Project description:Simple PCR and sequencing assays that utilize a single pair of degenerate primers were used to characterize a 438-bp-long DNA fragment internal (sodA(int)) to the sodA gene encoding the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase in 19 enterococcal type strains (Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus cecorum, Enterococcus columbae, Enterococcus dispar, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus flavescens, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus malodoratus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus pseudoavium, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus saccharolyticus, Enterococcus seriolicida, Enterococcus solitarius, and Enterococcus sulfureus). Sequence analysis of the sodA(int) fragments enabled reliable identification of 18 enterococcal species, including E. casseliflavus-E. flavescens and E. gallinarum. The sodA(int) fragments of E. casseliflavus and E. flavescens were almost identical (99.5% sequence identity), which suggests that they should be associated in a single species. Our results confirm that the sodA gene constitutes a more discriminative target sequence than 16S rRNA gene in differentiating closely related bacterial species.
Project description:Data from four recent studies (S. H. Goh et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:2164-2166, 1998; S. H. Goh et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:818-823, 1996; S. H. Goh et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:3116-3121, 1997; A. Y. C. Kwok et al., Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:1181-1192, 1999) suggest that an approximately 600-bp region of the chaperonin 60 (Cpn60) gene, amplified by PCR with a single pair of degenerate primers, has utility as a potentially universal target for bacterial identification (ID). This Cpn60 gene ID method correctly identified isolates representative of numerous staphylococcal species and Streptococcus iniae, a human and animal pathogen. We report herein that this method enabled us to distinguish clearly between 17 Enterococcus species (Enterococcus asini, Enterococcus rattus, Enterococcus dispar, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus cecorum, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus malodoratus, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus pseudoavium, Enterococcus new sp. strain Facklam, and Enterococcus saccharolyticus), and Vagococcus fluvialis, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactococcus garvieae. From 123 blind-tested samples, only two discrepancies were observed between the Facklam and Collins phenotyping method (R. R. Facklam and M. D. Collins, J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:731-734, 1989) and the Cpn60 ID method. In each case, the discrepancies were resolved in favor of the Cpn60 ID method. The species distributions of the 123 blind-tested isolates were Enterococcus new sp. strain Facklam (ATCC 700913), 3; E. asini, 1; E. rattus, 4; E. dispar, 2; E. gallinarum, 20; E. hirae, 9; E. durans, 9; E. faecalis, 12; E. mundtii, 3; E. casseliflavus, 8; E. faecium, 25; E. malodoratus, 3; E. raffinosus, 8; E. avium, 4; E. pseudoavium, 1; an unknown Enterococcus clinical isolate, sp. strain R871; Vagococcus fluvialis, 4; Lactococcus garvieae, 3; Lactococcus lactis, 3; Leuconostoc sp., 1; and Pediococcus sp., 1. The Cpn60 gene ID method, coupled with reverse checkerboard hybridization, is an effective method for the identification of Enterococcus and related organisms.
Project description:Analysis of changes in gene expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1 delta-EF2638 mutant compared to wild-type OG1 strain. The deletion mutant has a growth defect when grown with aeration The mutant presented in this study is described and characterized in Vesic, D. and Kristich, C.J. 2012. A Rex-family transcriptional repressor influnces H2O2 accumulation by Enterococcus faecalis. (submitted for publication) Microarray analysis was done using RNA isolated from two independent cultures of wild-type Enterococcus faecalis OG1 and two independent cultres of Enterococcus faecalis OG1 delta-EF2638 mutant; each RNA sample was subjected to triplicate hybridization (technical replicates) . Microarrays were custom designed to investigate expression of ORFs in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF genome. The arrays were designed based on the OG1RF annotation generated with the Rapid Annotation Using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server (Aziz et. al. 2008. BMC Genomics 9:75), as described in Frank et al (2012) Infect. Immun. 80:539. The aim was eighteen probe pairs per ORF, each of which is present in triplicate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study was aimed to investigate the intestinal microbiota in racing pigeons with regard to Enterococcus species distribution, virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility. Three methods (API, Multiplex sodA-PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing) were compared for Enterococcus species identification. Cloacal samples from 179 apparently healthy pigeons of 13 different flocks were tested. RESULTS:Multiplex sodA-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed almost perfect agreement in Enterococcus species identification. Isolates were identified as Enterococcus columbae (34.5%), Enterococcus hirae (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (11.7%), Enterococcus faecium (11.7%), Enterococcus gallinarum (9%), Enterococcus mundtii (4.8%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3.4%), Enterococcus cecorum (2.1%), Enterococcus durans (2.1%). More Enterococcus species were found after the race season than before. The study showed differences between Enterococcus species in relation to 68.8% (22/32) biochemical parameters. Six out of seven virulence genes were detected: gelE (43.5%), asa1 (42.1%), efaA (30.3%), ace (30.3%), cylA (27.6%), and esp (9%). None of the isolates harboured hyl gene. Overall 15.2% of Enterococcus isolates produced gelatinase, but 66.7% gelE genes were silent. Enterococcus faecalis showed the most often efaA, ace and gelatinase activity than other enterococcal species. Nearly all isolates (93.1%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most frequent resistance was to enrofloxacin (80%), doxycycline with teicoplanin (73.1%), erythromycin (49.7%). The study revealed significant differences between some enterococcal species in the antibiotic susceptibility to different antibiotics. Enterococcus columbae and E. cecorum showed significantly more frequent resistance to chloramphenicol than other enterococci. The presence of VRE (19.3%), HLGR (2.8%) and no LRE were found. Overall 30.3% of isolates were positive for vancomycin resistance genes, where vanC1 (E. gallinarum), vanC2-C3 (E. hirae, E. casseliflavus), vanB (E. columbae) predominated. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude, that intestinal microbiota in racing pigeons is composed by 9 different Enterococcus species. Given that racing pigeons are kept in close contact with humans and backyard animals, combined with their long-distance flight abilities, they can serve as potential source of virulent and antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. in the environment.
Project description:The elongation factor Tu, encoded by tuf genes, is a GTP binding protein that plays a central role in protein synthesis. One to three tuf genes per genome are present, depending on the bacterial species. Most low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria carry only one tuf gene. We have designed degenerate PCR primers derived from consensus sequences of the tuf gene to amplify partial tuf sequences from 17 enterococcal species and other phylogenetically related species. The amplified DNA fragments were sequenced either by direct sequencing or by sequencing cloned inserts containing putative amplicons. Two different tuf genes (tufA and tufB) were found in 11 enterococcal species, including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus dispar, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus malodoratus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus pseudoavium, and Enterococcus raffinosus. For the other six enterococcal species (Enterococcus cecorum, Enterococcus columbae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus sulfureus, Enterococcus saccharolyticus, and Enterococcus solitarius), only the tufA gene was present. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the 11 species having two tuf genes all have a common ancestor, while the six species having only one copy diverged from the enterococcal lineage before that common ancestor. The presence of one or two copies of the tuf gene in enterococci was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis of tuf sequences demonstrated that the enterococcal tufA gene branches with the Bacillus, Listeria, and Staphylococcus genera, while the enterococcal tufB gene clusters with the genera Streptococcus and Lactococcus. Primary structure analysis showed that four amino acid residues encoded within the sequenced regions are conserved and unique to the enterococcal tufB genes and the tuf genes of streptococci and Lactococcus lactis. The data suggest that an ancestral streptococcus or a streptococcus-related species may have horizontally transferred a tuf gene to the common ancestor of the 11 enterococcal species which now carry two tuf genes.
Project description:The highly conserved central loop of domain V of 23S RNA (nucleotides 2042 to 2628; Escherichia coli numbering) is implicated in peptidyltransferase activity and represents one of the target sites for macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics. DNA encoding domain V (590 bp) of several species of Enterococcus was amplified by PCR. Twenty enterococcal isolates were tested, including Enterococcus faecium (six isolates), Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus casseliflavus (two isolates of each), and Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus malodoratus, and Enterococcus hirae (one isolate of each). For all isolates, species identification by biochemical testing was corroborated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequence of domain V of the 23S rRNA gene from E. faecium and E. faecalis differed from those of all other enterococci. The domain V sequences of E. durans and E. hirae were identical. This was also true for E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. E. avium differed from E. casseliflavus by 23 bases, from E. durans by 16 bases, and from E. malodoratus by 2 bases. E. avium differed from E. raffinosus by one base. Despite the fact that domain V is considered to be highly conserved, substantial differences were identified between several enterococcal species.
Project description:To further investigate the homeostatic response of E. faecalis to Fe exposure, we examine the whole-genome transcriptional response of wild-type (WT) exposed to non toxic Fe excess. This experiment correspond the work titled Transcriptomic response of Enterococcus faecalis to iron excess (work in preparation) A four chip study using total RNA recovered from four separate wild-type cultures of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF, two controls samples (N medium growth) and two iron samples (N medium gowth with 0.5 mM Fe-NTA). Each chip measures the expression level of 3,114 genome genes from Enterococcus faecalis strain V583 (A7980-00-01).
Project description:Background:Enterococcus spp. belongs to a group of pathogens which are responsible for serious infections. This study aims at highlighting the raw milk microbiological contamination and at providing data for prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from raw cow's milk marketed (without any pasteurization) by street traders. Methods:During the period of May 2015 through April 2016, 150 cow's raw milk samples were collected from street traders in Meknes city. They were examined for the identification of Enterococcus spp. using biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined. Results:The results showed that 11.3% (17/150) of samples were positive for the presence of Enterococcus spp., of which 64.7% were identified as Enterococcus faecalis, 17.6% as Enterococcus faecium, 11.8% as Enterococcus durans and 5.9% as Enterococcus hirae. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed that all Enterococcus spp. were resistant to ampicillin. The species E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. durans and E. hirae were resistant to streptomycin, with percentages of 52.9% (9/17), 11.8% (2/17), 11.8% (2/17), and 5.9% (1/17) respectively. All isolated strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were resistant to tetracycline. The multiple antibiotic resistance index was elevated in the majority of Enterococcus spp., reaching values higher than 0.5, indicating a risk for public health. Conclusion:This study shows that the raw milk consumed by the population is contaminated with strains of Enterococcus resistant to antibiotics used in breeding for prophylactic purposes. This requires raising the awareness of those involved in the production and marketing of milk, so as to take measures to apply good hygienic practices and rationalize the use of zootechnical antibiotics.
Project description:Enterococcus is ubiquitous in nature and is a commensal of both the bovine and human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is also associated with clinical infections in humans. Subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics to cattle selects for antibiotic resistant enterococci in the bovine GI tract. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may be present in enterococci following antibiotic use in cattle. If located on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) their dissemination between Enterococcus species and to pathogenic bacteria may be promoted, reducing the efficacy of antibiotics.We present a comparative genomic analysis of twenty-one Enterococcus spp. isolated from bovine feces including Enterococcus hirae (n?=?10), Enterococcus faecium (n?=?3), Enterococcus villorum (n?=?2), Enterococcus casseliflavus (n?=?2), Enterococcus faecalis (n?=?1), Enterococcus durans (n?=?1), Enterococcus gallinarum (n?=?1) and Enterococcus thailandicus (n?=?1). The analysis revealed E. faecium and E. faecalis from bovine feces share features with human clinical isolates, including virulence factors. The Tn917 transposon conferring macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance was identified in both E. faecium and E. hirae, suggesting dissemination of ARGs on MGEs may occur in the bovine GI tract. An E. faecium isolate was also identified with two integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) belonging to the Tn916 family of ICE, Tn916 and Tn5801, both conferring tetracycline resistance.This study confirms the presence of enterococci in the bovine GI tract possessing ARGs on MGEs, but the predominant species in cattle, E. hirae is not commonly associated with infections in humans. Analysis using additional complete genomes of E. faecium from the NCBI database demonstrated differential clustering of commensal and clinical isolates, suggesting that these strains may be specifically adapted to their respective environments.
Project description:The microarrays experiments was performed with the purpose of identify transcriptional networks activated by copper. This experiment correspond the work tituled Enterococcus faecalis reconfigure the activation of its transcriptional regulatory networks under different copper exposure levels (work in preparation).Mauricio Latorrea,b, Jessica Galloway-Peñac,d,e, Jung Hyeo Rhoc,d, Marko Budinichf, Barbara E. Murrayc,d,e, Alejandro Maassb,f, Mauricio Gonzáleza,b,f*. a INTA, Laboratorio de Bioinformática y Expresión Génica, INTA, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. b Center for Genome Regulation (Fondap 15090007), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. c Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas, United States of America. d Center for the Study of Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas, United States of America. e Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas, United States of America f Mathomics, Center for Mathematical Modeling (UMI2807CNRS), Santiago, Chile. * Corresponding author. Address: El Líbano 5524, Santiago 11, Chile. Fax: +56 (2) 2214030. A eight chip study (two technical replicates) using total RNA recovered from four separate cultures of: Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF (N medium growth), Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF copΔ mutant strain (N medium growth), Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF copΔ mutant low copper treatment (N medium growth + 0.05 mM CuSO4) and Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF copΔ mutant low copper treatment (N medium growth + 0.5 mM CuSO4). Each chip measures the expression level of 3,114 genome genes from Enterococcus faecalis strain V583 (A7980-00-01).