Project description:CHD5, a tumor suppressor at 1p36, is frequently lost or silenced in poor prognosis neuroblastoma (NB) and many adult cancers. The role of CHD5 in metastasis is unknown. We confirm that low expression of CHD5 is associated with stage 4 NB. Forced expression of CHD5 in NB cell lines with 1p loss inhibited key aspects of the metastatic cascade in vitro: anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion. In vivo, formation of bone marrow and liver metastases developing from intravenously injected NB cells was delayed and decreased by forced CHD5 expression. Genome-wide mRNA sequencing revealed reduction of genes and gene sets associated with metastasis when CHD5 was overexpressed. Known metastasis-suppressing genes preferentially up-regulated in CHD5-overexpressing NB cells included PLCL1. In patient NB, low expression of PLCL1 was associated with metastatic disease and poor survival. Knock-down of PLCL1 and of p53 in IMR5 NB cells overexpressing CHD5 reversed CHD5-induced inhibition of invasion and migration in vitro. In summary, CHD5 is a metastasis suppressor in NB. Overall design: Comparison of gene expression from control cells and CHD5 overexpressing neuroblastoma cells
Project description:Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric malignancy of the neural crest with suboptimal cure rates and a striking predilection for widespread metastases, underscoring the need to identify novel therapeutic vulnerabilities. We recently identified the RNA binding protein LIN28B as a driver in high-risk neuroblastoma and demonstrated it promotes oncogenic cell proliferation by coordinating a RAN-Aurora kinase A network. Here, we demonstrate that LIN28B influences another key hallmark of cancer, metastatic dissemination. Using a murine xenograft model of neuroblastoma dissemination, we show that LIN28B promotes metastasis. We demonstrate that this is in part due to the effects of LIN28B on self-renewal and migration, providing an understanding of how LIN28B shapes the metastatic phenotype. Our studies reveal that the let-7 family, which LIN28B inhibits, decreases self-renewal and migration. Next, we identify PDZ Binding Kinase (PBK) as a novel LIN28B target. PBK is a serine/threonine kinase that promotes the proliferation and self-renewal of neural stem cells and serves as an oncogenic driver in multiple aggressive malignancies. We demonstrate that PBK is both a novel direct target of let-7i and that MYCN regulates PBK expression, thus elucidating two oncogenic drivers that converge on PBK. Functionally, PBK promotes self-renewal and migration, phenocopying LIN28B. Taken together, our findings define a role for LIN28B in neuroblastoma metastasis and define the targetable kinase PBK as a potential novel vulnerability in metastatic neuroblastoma.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Isatin has gained attention in recent years owing to its anticancer properties and is thought to offer medical benefits. Isatin is an endogenous oxidized indole with various behavioral and metabolic properties and is commonly found in mammalian tissues and fluids. It has several plausible applications in biomedical research and has also been investigated as a potential anticancer agent. However, its effects on neuroblastoma (NB) cells are unclear. Here, we evaluate the effects of isatin on neuroblastoma cell metastasis and invasion and reveal the underlying mechanism. METHODS:NB cell viability was evaluated with the cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay. NB cell invasion and migration abilities were tested with transwell and wound healing experiments. The relative mRNA expression of associated molecules was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR. The expression level of related proteins was detected with western blotting. RESULTS:Isatin inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of neuroblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Isatin increased the expression level of H3K4m1 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and decreased the phosphorylation level of PTEN downstream proteins phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, focal adhesion kinase, and SHC. Together, these results support the potential anti-metastatic effects of isatin on NB cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The chromodomain, helicase DNA-binding protein 5 (CHD5) is a potential tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 1p36, a region recurrently deleted in high risk neuroblastoma (NB). Previous data have shown that CHD5 mRNA is present in normal neural tissues and in low risk NB, nevertheless, the distribution of CHD5 protein has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate CHD5 protein expression as an immunohistochemical marker of outcome in NB. With this purpose, CHD5 protein expression was analyzed in normal neural tissues and neuroblastic tumors (NTs). CHD5 gene and protein expression was reexamined after induction chemotherapy in a subset of high risk tumors to identify potential changes reflecting tumor response. RESULTS: We provide evidence that CHD5 is a neuron-specific protein, absent in glial cells, with diverse expression amongst neuron types. Within NTs, CHD5 immunoreactivity was found restricted to differentiating neuroblasts and ganglion-like cells, and absent in undifferentiated neuroblasts and stromal Schwann cells. Correlation between protein and mRNA levels was found, suggesting transcriptional regulation of CHD5. An immunohistochemical analysis of 90 primary NTs highlighted a strong association of CHD5 expression with favorable prognostic variables (age at diagnosis <12 months, low clinical stage, and favorable histology; P < 0.001 for all), overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001) and event-free survival (EFS) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that CHD5 prognostic value is independent of other clinical and biologically relevant parameters, and could therefore represent a marker of outcome in NB that can be tested by conventional immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of CHD5 was confirmed in an independent, blinded set of 32 NB tumors (P < 0.001).Reactivation of CHD5 expression after induction chemotherapy was observed mainly in those high risk tumors with induced tumor cell differentiation features. Remarkably, these NB tumors showed good clinical response and prolonged patient survival. CONCLUSIONS: The neuron-specific protein CHD5 may represent a marker of outcome in NB that can be tested by conventional immunohistochemistry. Re-establishment of CHD5 expression induced by chemotherapy could be a surrogate marker of treatment response.
Project description:Neuroblastomas express increased levels of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in GRP-R-mediated cell signaling in neuroblastoma growth and metastasis are unknown. Here, we report that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), as a critical downstream target of GRP-R, is an important regulator of neuroblastoma tumorigenicity. We found that FAK expression correlates with GRP-R expression in human neuroblastoma sections and cell lines. GRP-R overexpression in SK-N-SH cells increased FAK, integrin ?3 and ?1 expressions and cell migration. These cells demonstrated flatter cell morphology with broad lamellae, in which intense FAK expression was localized to the leading edges of lamellipodia. Interestingly, FAK activation was, in part, dependent on integrin ?3 and ?1 expression. Conversely, GRP-R silencing decreased FAK as well as Mycn levels in BE(2)-C cells, which displayed a denser cellular morphology. Importantly, rescue experiments in GRP-R silenced BE(2)-C cells showed FAK overexpression significantly enhanced cell viability and soft agar colony formation; similarly, FAK overexpression in SK-N-SH cells also resulted in increased cell growth. These effects were reversed in FAK silenced BE(2)-C cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of FAK inhibition in vivo. FAK inhibitor (Y15) suppressed GRP-induced neuroblastoma growth and metastasis. Our results indicate that FAK is a critical downstream regulator of GRP-R, which mediates tumorigenesis and metastasis in neuroblastoma.
Project description:CYTL1 is a novel cytokine that was first identified in CD34+ hematopoietic cells. We previously prepared recombinant CYTL1 and verified that it chemoattracted human monocytes via the CCR2/ERK pathway. It has been reported that CYTL1 plays contradictory roles in neuroblastoma and lung cancer. We found that the expression level of CYTL1 was notably decreased and it was hypermethylated in various tumors, including breast and lung cancer, by bioinformatics analyses. After validating the expression of CYTL1 in lung cancer, we identified that CYTL1 exerted no obvious effect on tumor cell proliferation but inhibited their migration and invasion, and these effects were accompanied by decreasing STAT3 phosphorylation, using recombinant CYTL1 and CYTL1-overexpressing tumor cell lines. Furthermore, we constructed experimental and spontaneous metastasis models of breast cancer in BALB/c mice and found that CYTL1 significantly inhibited tumor metastasis in vivo. In summary, CYTL1 is a cytokine with tumor-suppressing characteristics that inhibits tumor metastasis and STAT3 phosphorylation in multiple types of tumors.
Project description:Paired like homeobox 2B (PHOX2B) is a minimal residual disease (MRD) marker of neuroblastoma. The presence of MRD, also referred to as micro-metastases, is a powerful marker of poor prognosis in neuroblastoma. Lung metastasis is considered a terminal event in neuroblastoma. Lung micro-metastatic neuroblastoma (MicroNB) cells show high expression levels of PHOX2B and possess a less malignant and metastatic phenotype than lung macro metastatic neuroblastoma (MacroNB) cells, which hardly express PHOX2B. In vitro assays showed that PHOX2B knockdown in MicroNB cells did not affect cell viability; however it decreased the migratory capacity of the MicroNB-shPHOX2B cells. An orthotopic inoculation of MicroNB-shPHOX2B cells into the adrenal gland of nude mice resulted in significantly larger primary tumors and a heavier micro-metastatic load in the lungs and bone-marrow, than when control cells were inoculated. PHOX2B expression was found to be regulated by methylation. The PHOX2B promoter in MacroNB cells is significantly more methylated than in MicroNB cells. Demethylation assays using 5-azacytidine demonstrated that methylation can indeed inhibit PHOX2B transcription in MacroNB cells. These pre-clinical data strongly suggest that PHOX2B functions as a suppressor of neuroblastoma progression.
Project description:Loss of the chromatin remodeling ATPase CHD5 has been linked to the progression of neuroblastoma tumors, yet the underlying mechanisms behind the tumor suppressor role of CHD5 are unknown. In this study, we purified the human CHD5 complex and found that CHD5 is a component of the full NuRD transcriptional repressor complex, which also contains methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone deacetylases. The CHD5/NuRD complex appears mutually exclusive with the related CHD4/NuRD complex as overexpression of CHD5 results in loss of the CHD4 protein in cells. Following a search for genes that are regulated by CHD5 in neuroblastoma cells, we found that CHD5 binds to and represses the G2/M checkpoint gene WEE1. Reintroduction of CHD5 into neuroblastoma cells represses WEE1 expression, demonstrating that CHD5 can function as a repressor in cells. A catalytically inactive mutant version of CHD5 is able to associate with a NuRD cofactor but fails to repress transcription. Our study shows that CHD5 is a NuRD-associated transcriptional repressor and identifies WEE1 as one of the CHD5-regulated genes that may link CHD5 to tumor suppression.
Project description:A genome-wide association study identified LMO1, which encodes an LIM-domain-only transcriptional cofactor, as a neuroblastoma susceptibility gene that functions as an oncogene in high-risk neuroblastoma. Here we show that d?h promoter-mediated expression of LMO1 in zebrafish synergizes with MYCN to increase the proliferation of hyperplastic sympathoadrenal precursor cells, leading to a reduced latency and increased penetrance of neuroblastomagenesis. The transgenic expression of LMO1 also promoted hematogenous dissemination and distant metastasis, which was linked to neuroblastoma cell invasion and migration, and elevated expression levels of genes affecting tumor cell-extracellular matrix interaction, including loxl3, itga2b, itga3, and itga5. Our results provide in vivo validation of LMO1 as an important oncogene that promotes neuroblastoma initiation, progression, and widespread metastatic dissemination.
Project description:Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, is responsible for over 15 % of pediatric cancer deaths. We have shown that neuroblastoma cell lines overexpress focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that controls a number of tumorigenic pathways. In this study, we hypothesized that inhibition of FAK would result in decreased cellular migration and invasion in neuroblastoma cell lines, and decrease metastasis in a murine model. We utilized non-isogenic and isogenic MYCN human neuroblastoma cell lines and parallel methods of FAK inhibition. Cell viability, migration, and invasion assays were employed to assess the effects of FAK inhibition in vitro. A nude mouse model was utilized to determine the effects of FAK inhibition on in vivo liver metastasis. FAK knockdown with siRNA resulted in decreased invasion and migration in neuroblastoma cell lines, and the effects of siRNA-induced FAK inhibition were more pronounced in MYCN amplified cell lines. In addition, abrogation of FAK with a small molecule inhibitors resulted in decreased cell survival, migration and invasion in neuroblastoma cell lines, again most pronounced in cell lines with MYCN amplification. Finally, small molecule FAK inhibition in a nude mouse model resulted in a significant decrease in metastatic tumor burden in SK-N-BE(2) injected animals. We believe that FAK plays an important role in maintaining and propagating the metastatic phenotype of neuroblastoma cells, and this driver role is exaggerated in cell lines that overexpress MYCN. FAK inhibition warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of aggressive neuroblastoma.