Project description:<i>Paphiopedilum emersonii</i> is an endemic terrestrial orchid in China. In this study, the chloroplast genome of <i>P. emersonii</i> was determined from BGISEQ-500 sequencing data. The total chloroplast genome was 162,590?bp in length, consisting of a large single-copy region (LSC, 87,852?bp), a small single-copy region (SSC, 870?bp), and two inverted repeat regions (IRA and IRB, 36,934?bp, each). The complete chloroplast genome contains 131 genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis indicates that <i>P. emersonii</i> was sister to <i>Paphiopedilum micranthum.</i> The chloroplast genome will contribute to the research and conservation of <i>P. emersonii</i>.
Project description:Paphiopedilum delenatii is a native orchid of Vietnam with highly attractive floral traits. Unfortunately, it is now listed as a critically endangered species with a few hundred individuals remaining in nature. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing of P. delenatii and assembled its complete chloroplast genome. The whole chloroplast genome of P. delenatii was 160,955 bp in size, 35.6% of which was GC content, and exhibited typical quadripartite structure of plastid genomes with four distinct regions, including the large and small single-copy regions and a pair of inverted repeat regions. There were, in total, 130 genes annotated in the genome: 77 coding genes, 39 tRNA genes, 8 rRNA genes, and 6 pseudogenes. The loss of ndh genes and variation in inverted repeat (IR) boundaries as well as data of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and divergent hotspots provided useful information for identification applications and phylogenetic studies of Paphiopedilum species. Whole chloroplast genomes could be used as an effective super barcode for species identification or for developing other identification markers, which subsequently serves the conservation of Paphiopedilum species.
Project description:<i>Paphiopedilum purpuratum</i>, an endangered terrestrial orchid distributed in southwestern and south of China. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of <i>P. purpuratum</i> was determined from Illumina pair-end sequencing data. With a total length of 158,459?bp in length and includes two inverted repeat regions (IRs) of 34,484?bp each, which were separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) 88,022?bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) 1,469?bp. The chloroplast genome contained 126 genes, including 74 protein conding genes,38 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that <i>P. purpuratum, P. dianthum, P. niveum, P. delenatii,</i> and <i>P. armeniacum</i> cluster together, placed them within genus <i>Paphiopedilum</i>. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of <i>P. purpuratum</i> will provide a useful resource for the evolutionary biology study of phylogenetic studies in Orchidaceae.
Project description:Our study searched all available sequences of Paphiopedilum from NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) and tested for their species resolution capability in single as well as in combination forms. A total of 28 loci were applied for analyses in the study. From the nuclear genome, the highest resolution was of LFY, followed by ACO, DEF4, and RAD51. These 4 loci were found to be even better than the popular region ITS for Paphiopedilum identification. Among the chloroplast regions, the intergenic spacer atpB-rbcL gave the highest species resolution (76.7%), followed by matK, trnL, rpoC2, and ycf1. The divergence of CHS, XDH, 18S, Nad1, ccsA, rbcL, and ycf2 was very low and should not be used as identifying markers for Paphiopedilum. In addition, 2-locus combinations could improve significantly the resolving capability for the genus, in which 14/36 data sets could be resolved completely (100%) with interspecies relationships. The indel information was also effective supporting data for molecular discrimination of species.
Project description:Paphiopedilum is among the most popular ornamental orchid genera due to its unique slipper flowers and attractive leaf coloration. Most of the Paphiopedilum species are in critical danger due to over-exploitation. They were listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, which prevents their being traded across borders. While most Paphiopedilum species are distinctive, owing to their respective flowers, their vegetative features are more similar and undistinguished. Hence, the conservation of these species is challenging, as most traded specimins are immature and non-flowered. An urgent need exists for effective identification methods to prevent further illegal trading of Paphiopedilum species. DNA barcoding is a rapid and sensitive method for species identification, at any developmental stage, using short DNA sequences. In this study, eight loci, i.e., ITS, LEAFY, ACO, matK, trnL, rpoB, rpoC1, and trnH-psbA, were screened for potential barcode sequences on the Vietnamese Paphiopedilum species. In total, 17 out of 22 Paphiopedilum species were well identified. The studied DNA sequences were deposited to GenBank, in which Paphiopedilum dalatense accessions were introduced for the first time. ACO, LEAFY, and trnH-psbA were limited in amplification rate for Paphiopedilum. ITS was the best single barcode. Single ITS could be used along with nucleotide polymorphism characteristics for species discrimination. The combination of ITS + matK was the most efficient identification barcode for Vietnamese Paphiopedilum species. This barcode also succeeded in recognizing misidentified or wrongly-named traded samples. Different bioinformatics programs and algorithms for establishing phylogenetic trees were also compared in the study to propose quick, simple, and effective tools for practical use. It was proved that both the Bayesian Inference method in the MRBAYES program and the neighbor-joining method in the MEGA software met the criteria. Our study provides a barcoding database of Vietnamese Paphiopedilum which may significantly contribute to the control and conservation of these valuable species.
Project description:The phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Paphiopedilum were evaluated by using phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, the plastid trnL intron, the trnL-F spacer, and the atpB-rbcL spacer. This genus was divided into three subgenera: Parvisepalum, Brachypetalum, and Paphiopedilum. Each of them is monophyletic with high bootstrap supports according to the highly resolved phylogenetic tree reconstructed by combined sequences. There are five sections within the subgenus Paphiopedilum, including Coryopedilum, Pardalopetalum, Cochlopetalum, Paphiopedilum, and Barbata. The subgenus Parvisepalum is phylogenetic basal, which suggesting that Parvisepalum is comprising more ancestral characters than other subgenera. The evolutionary trend of genus Paphiopedilum was deduced based on the maximum likelihood (ML) tree and Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST). Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP) analyses based on the combined sequence data. The biogeographic analysis indicates that Paphiopedilum species were firstly derived in Southern China and Southeast Asia, subsequently dispersed into the Southeast Asian archipelagoes. The subgenera Paphiopedilum was likely derived after these historical dispersals and vicariance events. Our research reveals the relevance of the differentiation of Paphiopedilum in Southeast Asia and geological history. Moreover, the biogeographic analysis explains that the significant evolutionary hotspots of these orchids in the Sundaland and Wallacea might be attributed to repeated migration and isolation events between the south-eastern Asia mainland and the Sunda Super Islands.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:Paphiopedilum is an important genus of the orchid family Orchidaceae and has high horticultural value. The wild populations are under threat of extinction because of overcollection and habitat destruction. Mature seeds of most Paphiopedilum species are difficult to germinate, which severely restricts their germplasm conservation and commercial production. The factors inhibiting germination are largely unknown. RESULTS:In this study, large amounts of non-methylated lignin accumulated during seed maturation of Paphiopedilum armeniacum (P. armeniacum), which negatively correlates with the germination rate. The transcriptome profiles of P. armeniacum seed at different development stages were compared to explore the molecular clues for non-methylated lignin synthesis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that a large number of genes associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism during seed maturation were differentially expressed. Several key genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway displayed different expression patterns during the lignification process. PAL, 4CL, HCT, and CSE upregulation was associated with C and H lignin accumulation. The expression of CCoAOMT, F5H, and COMT were maintained at a low level or down-regulated to inhibit the conversion to the typical G and S lignin. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed the altered expression levels of these genes in seeds and vegetative tissues. CONCLUSIONS:This work demonstrated the plasticity of natural lignin polymer assembly in seed and provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of seed-specific lignification process.
Project description:<i>Paphiopedilum malipoense</i> S.C.Chen & Z.H.Tsi is a new orchid species found in Malipo county, Yunnan. Here we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence and the features of <i>P. malipoense</i>. Its cp genome sequence of <i>P. malipoense</i> is 158,708?bp, including one large single-copy region (LSC, 89,452?bp), one small single-copy region (SSC, 17,692?bp), and two inverted repeat regions (IRs, 25,782?bp). The cp genome encoded 132 genes, of which 112 were unique genes (79 protein-coding genes, 29 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs). The phylogenetic relationships show that <i>P. malipoense</i> is sister with <i>P. armeniacum-P. wardii</i>.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS) to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. RESULTS: 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus) to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS) sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. CONCLUSIONS: Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements--for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions--but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These results make the genus a model system for the study of complex chromosomal evolution in plants.
Project description:Satellite DNA is a rapidly diverging, largely repetitive DNA component of many eukaryotic genomes. Here we analyse the evolutionary dynamics of a satellite DNA repeat in the genomes of a group of Asian subtropical lady slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum subgenus Parvisepalum and representative species in the other subgenera/sections across the genus). A new satellite repeat in Paphiopedilum subgenus Parvisepalum, SatA, was identified and characterized using the RepeatExplorer pipeline in HiSeq Illumina reads from P. armeniacum (2n?=?26). Reconstructed monomers were used to design a satellite-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe. The data were also analysed within a phylogenetic framework built using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 45S nuclear ribosomal DNA.SatA comprises c. 14.5% of the P. armeniacum genome and is specific to subgenus Parvisepalum. It is composed of four primary monomers that range from 230 to 359 bp and contains multiple inverted repeat regions with hairpin-loop motifs. A new karyotype of P. vietnamense (2n?=?28) is presented and shows that the chromosome number in subgenus Parvisepalum is not conserved at 2n?=?26, as previously reported. The physical locations of SatA sequences were visualised on the chromosomes of all seven Paphiopedilum species of subgenus Parvisepalum (2n?=?26-28), together with the 5S and 45S rDNA loci using FISH. The SatA repeats were predominantly localisedin the centromeric, peri-centromeric and sub-telocentric chromosome regions, but the exact distribution pattern was species-specific.We conclude that the newly discovered, highly abundant and rapidly evolving satellite sequence SatA is specific to Paphiopedilum subgenus Parvisepalum. SatA and rDNA chromosomal distributions are characteristic of species, and comparisons between species reveal that the distribution patterns generate a strong phylogenetic signal. We also conclude that the ancestral chromosome number of subgenus Parvisepalum and indeed of all Paphiopedilum could be either 2n?=?26 or 28, if P. vietnamense is sister to all species in the subgenus as suggested by the ITS data.