Project description:Opioids such as morphine have many beneficial properties as analgesics, however, opioids may induce multiple adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. We have recently demonstrated that morphine treatment results in significant disruption in gut barrier function leading to increased translocation of gut commensal bacteria. However, it is unclear how opioids modulate the gut homeostasis. By using a mouse model of morphine treatment, we studied effects of morphine treatment on gut microbiome. We characterized phylogenetic profiles of gut microbes, and found a significant shift in the gut microbiome and increase of pathogenic bacteria following morphine treatment when compared to placebo. In the present study, wild type mice (C57BL/6J) were implanted with placebo, morphine pellets subcutaneously. Fecal matter were taken for bacterial 16s rDNA sequencing analysis at day 3 post treatment. A scatter plot based on an unweighted UniFrac distance matrics obtained from the sequences at OTU level with 97% similarity showed a distinct clustering of the community composition between the morphine and placebo treated groups. By using the chao1 index to evaluate alpha diversity (that is diversity within a group) and using unweighted UniFrac distance to evaluate beta diversity (that is diversity between groups, comparing microbial community based on compositional structures), we found that morphine treatment results in a significant decrease in alpha diversity and shift in fecal microbiome at day 3 post treatment compared to placebo treatment. Taxonomical analysis showed that morphine treatment results in a significant increase of potential pathogenic bacteria. Our study shed light on effects of morphine on the gut microbiome, and its role in the gut homeostasis.
Project description:Wild mammals often consume different food sources as they become geographical available. This change in diet composition is likely to influence the gut microbial community, yet it remains unclear what the relationship looks like-particularly in small herbivores-under natural conditions. We used DNA sequencing approaches to characterize the diet composition and gut microbial community of wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) collected from three altitudes. We tested if diet and gut microbiota composition changes across altitudes, and the relationship between diet diversity and gut microbiota diversity. Our results showed that altitude significantly influences the composition of diet and gut microbial communities. Notably, the alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed OTUs) of individual diet was not significantly correlated with that of gut microbiota, whereas the beta diversity (Jaccard and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) of diet was positively correlated with that of gut microbiota. Our study is the first time to highlight the relationship between diet and gut microbiota composition in wild pikas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It suggests that the species richness within individual gut microbiota does not linearly increase with diet diversity, whereas those individuals that are more similar in diet composition harbor more similar gut microbiota.
Project description:Mongolian cattle from China have strong adaptability and disease resistance. We aimed to compare the gut microbiota community structure and diversity in grazing Mongolian cattle from different regions in Inner Mongolia and to elucidate the influence of geographical factors on the intestinal microbial community structure. We used high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to analyze the fecal microbial community and diversity in samples from 60 grazing Mongolian cattle from Hulunbuir Grassland, Xilingol Grassland, and Alxa Desert. A total of 2,720,545 high-quality reads and sequences that were 1,117,505,301 bp long were obtained. Alpha diversity among the three groups showed that the gut microbial diversity in Mongolian cattle in the grasslands was significantly higher than that in the desert. The dominant phyla were <i>Firmicutes</i> and <i>Bacteroidetes</i>, whereas <i>Verrucomicrobia</i> presented the highest abundance in the gut of cattle in the Alxa Desert. The gut bacterial communities in cattle from the grasslands versus the Alxa Desert were distinctive, and those from the grasslands were closely clustered. Community composition analysis revealed significant differences in species diversity and richness. Overall, the composition of the gut microbiota in Mongolian cattle is affected by geographical factors. Gut microbiota may play important roles in the geographical adaptations of Mongolian cattle.
Project description:Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are active for a scant 3 to 5 months of the year. During the active season, adult squirrels compete for mates, reproduce, and fatten in preparation for hibernation, while juvenile squirrels, weaned in early July, must grow and acquire sufficient fat to survive their first hibernation season. During hibernation, the gut microbial community is altered in diversity, abundance, and activity. To date, no studies have examined the gut microbiota of hibernators across the truncated active season. We characterized trends in diversity (454 pyrosequencing), density (flow cytometry), viability (flow cytometry), and metabolism (short-chain fatty acid analysis) of the gut microbial community of juvenile arctic ground squirrels across their first active season at weaning and at 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks postweaning. At 8 weeks postweaning, the mean bacterial density was significantly higher than that at weaning, and the mean percentage of live bacteria was significantly higher than that at either weaning or 4 weeks postweaning. No significant differences in microbial diversity, total short-chain fatty acid concentrations, or molar proportions of individual short-chain fatty acids were observed among sample periods. The level of variability in gut microbial diversity among squirrels was high across the active season but was most similar among littermates, except at weaning, indicating strong maternal or genetic influences across development. Our results indicate that genetic or maternal influences exert profound effects on the gut microbial community of juvenile arctic ground squirrels. We did not find a correlation between host adiposity and gut microbial diversity during prehibernation fattening, likely due to a high level of variability among squirrels.
Project description:The introduction of solid foods is an important dietary event during infancy that causes profound shifts in the gut microbial composition towards a more adult-like state. Infant gut bacterial dynamics, especially in relation to nutritional intake remain understudied. Over 2 weeks surrounding the time of solid food introduction, the day-to-day dynamics in the gut microbiomes of 24 healthy, full-term infants from the Baby, Food & Mi and LucKi-Gut cohort studies were investigated in relation to their dietary intake. Microbial richness (observed species) and diversity (Shannon index) increased over time and were positively associated with dietary diversity. Microbial community structure (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) was determined predominantly by individual and age (days). The extent of change in community structure in the introductory period was negatively associated with daily dietary diversity. High daily dietary diversity stabilized the gut microbiome. Bifidobacterial taxa were positively associated, while taxa of the genus <i>Veillonella</i>, that may be the same species, were negatively associated with dietary diversity in both cohorts. This study furthers our understanding of the impact of solid food introduction on gut microbiome development in early life. Dietary diversity seems to have the greatest impact on the gut microbiome as solids are introduced.
Project description:In people, colonization with Clostridioides difficile, the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, has been shown to be associated with distinct gut microbial features, including reduced bacterial community diversity and depletion of key taxa. In dogs, the gut microbiota features that define C. difficile colonization are less well understood. We sought to define the gut microbiota features associated with C. difficile colonization in puppies, a population where the prevalence of C. difficile has been shown to be elevated, and to define the effect of puppy age and litter upon these features and C. difficile risk. We collected fecal samples from weaned (n = 27) and unweaned (n = 74) puppies from 13 litters and analyzed the effects of colonization status, age and litter on microbial diversity using linear mixed effects models. Colonization with C. difficile was significantly associated with younger age, and colonized puppies had significantly decreased bacterial community diversity and differentially abundant taxa compared to non-colonized puppies, even when adjusting for age. C. difficile colonization remained associated with decreased bacterial community diversity, but the association did not reach statistical significance in a mixed effects model incorporating litter as a random effect. Even though litter explained a greater proportion (67%) of the variability in microbial diversity than colonization status, we nevertheless observed heterogeneity in gut microbial community diversity and colonization status within more than half of the litters, suggesting that the gut microbiota contributes to colonization resistance against C. difficile. The colonization of puppies with C. difficile has important implications for the potential zoonotic transfer of this organism to people. The identified associations point to mechanisms by which C. difficile colonization may be reduced.
Project description:Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica. We found a significant shift in the microbial community structure and coding potential throughout the three gut sections of Panchlora sp., and through comparison with previously generated metagenomes of the cockroach's food source and niche, we reveal that this shift in microbial community composition is influenced by the ecosystems in which Panchlora sp. occurs. While the foregut is composed of microbes that likely originate from the symbiotic fungus gardens of the ants, the midgut and hindgut are composed of a microbial community that is likely cockroach-specific. Analogous to mammalian systems, the midgut and hindgut appear to be dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes with the capacity for polysaccharide degradation, suggesting they may assist in the degradation of dietary plant material. Our work underscores the prominence of community changes throughout gut microbiomes and highlights ecological factors that underpin the structure and function of the symbiotic microbial communities of metazoans.
Project description:In the first part of this paper, gut microbial difference of two genotypes mice was researched. The gut microbial community of type 2 diabetes animal model KKAy mice and normal C57BL/6J mice had clear distinctions in DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles. The pairwise similarity coefficient (C s ) was only 26-44 % between KKAy and C57BL/6J, but C s was 82-100 % among same genotypes mice. Thirteen dominant bands were cloned from DGGE profiles to exhibit difference on gut microbial structure further. In the second part of this paper, the influence of hypoglycemic drug Pioglitazone on the gut microbes in KKAy mice was researched by gut microbial diversity analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that Pioglitazone reduced the gut microbial diversity slightly and changed gut microbial structure of KKAy mice to that of normal C57BL/6J mice.
Project description:The recent ban of the antimicrobial compound triclosan from use in consumer soaps followed research that showcased the risk it poses to the environment and to human health. Triclosan has been found in human plasma, urine and milk, demonstrating that it is present in human tissues. Previous work has also demonstrated that consumption of triclosan disrupts the gut microbial community of mice and zebrafish. Due to the widespread use of triclosan and ubiquity in the environment, it is imperative to understand the impact this chemical has on the human body and its symbiotic resident microbes. To that end, this study is the first to explore how triclosan impacts the human gut microbial community in vitro both during and after treatment. Through our in vitro system simulating three regions of the human gut; the ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon regions, we found that treatment with triclosan significantly impacted the community structure in terms of reduced population, diversity, and metabolite production, most notably in the ascending colon region. Given a 2 week recovery period, most of the population levels, community structure, and diversity levels were recovered for all colon regions. Our results demonstrate that the human gut microbial community diversity and population size is significantly impacted by triclosan at a high dose in vitro, and that the community is recoverable within this system.
Project description:Animal sociality facilitates the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms among hosts, but the extent to which sociality enables animals' beneficial microbial associations is poorly understood. The question is critical because microbial communities, particularly those in the gut, are key regulators of host health. We show evidence that chimpanzee social interactions propagate microbial diversity in the gut microbiome both within and between host generations. Frequent social interaction promotes species richness within individual microbiomes as well as homogeneity among the gut community memberships of different chimpanzees. Sampling successive generations across multiple chimpanzee families suggests that infants inherited gut microorganisms primarily through social transmission. These results indicate that social behavior generates a pan-microbiome, preserving microbial diversity across evolutionary time scales and contributing to the evolution of host species-specific gut microbial communities.