Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼22 nucleotides) noncoding ribonucleic acids (RNAs) that regulate gene expression by binding to their complementary sequences. Recent years, a great deal of miRNAs which highly-enriched in skeletal muscle have been identified, which can influence multiple facets of muscle development and function through their regulation of key genes controlling myogenesis. However, to date no miRNAs have been reported to modulate muscle development in goat. Total RNAs from the xuhuai goats longissimus thoracis at fetal and six month old stages were used to construct small RNA libraries for Solexa SBS technology sequencing. In the small RNA profile, a total of 15,627,457 clean reads were obtained from the fetal goat library and 15,593,721 clean reads from the six month old goat library. There are 471 conserved miRNAs overlapped in both libraries, of which 343 miRNAs were differential expressed. We identified 122 novel miRNAs in the fetal caprine library and 53 novel miRNAs in the six month old-caprine library. Overall design: Examination of Chinese Xuhuai goat miRNAs by deep sequencing
Project description:The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development.
Project description:Studies of the gene and miRNA expression profiles associated with the postnatal late growth, development, and aging of skeletal muscle are lacking in sika deer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of the growth and development of sika deer skeletal muscle, we used de novo RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and microRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq) analyses to determine the differentially expressed (DE) unigenes and miRNAs from skeletal muscle tissues at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years in sika deer. A total of 51,716 unigenes, 171 known miRNAs, and 60 novel miRNAs were identified based on four mRNA and small RNA libraries. A total of 2,044 unigenes and 11 miRNAs were differentially expressed between adolescence and juvenile sika deer, 1,946 unigenes and 4 miRNAs were differentially expressed between adult and adolescent sika deer, and 2,209 unigenes and 1 miRNAs were differentially expressed between aged and adult sika deer. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses showed that DE unigenes and miRNA were mainly related to energy and substance metabolism, processes that are closely associate with the growth, development, and aging of skeletal muscle. We also constructed mRNA-mRNA and miRNA-mRNA interaction networks related to the growth, development, and aging of skeletal muscle. The results show that mRNA (Myh1, Myh2, Myh7, ACTN3, etc.) and miRNAs (miR-133a, miR-133c, miR-192, miR-151-3p, etc.) may play important roles in muscle growth and development, and mRNA (WWP1, DEK, UCP3, FUS, etc.) and miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-378b, miR-199a-5p, miR-7, etc.) may have key roles in muscle aging. In this study, we determined the dynamic miRNA and unigenes transcriptome in muscle tissue for the first time in sika deer. The age-dependent miRNAs and unigenes identified will offer insights into the molecular mechanism underlying muscle development, growth, and maintenance and will also provide valuable information for sika deer genetic breeding.
Project description:Background: Amino acids, especially leucine, are particularly effective in promoting protein synthesis. Leucine is known to increase the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent, as well as -independent, signaling pathways. However, the overall translation program is poorly defined, and it is unknown how the activation of these pathways differentially controls the translation of specific mRNAs.Objective: Ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing were used to precisely define the translational program activated by an acute oral dose of leucine.Methods: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were deprived of food overnight before the delivery of an acute dose of l-leucine (9.4 mg) (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 5) and tissues collected 30 min later. Ribosome footprints and total RNA were isolated and subjected to deep sequencing. Changes in gene-specific mRNA abundance and ribosome occupancy were determined between the leucine-treated and control groups by aligning sequence reads to Reference Sequence database mRNAs and applying statistical features of the Bioconductor package edgeR.Results: Our data revealed mRNA features that confer translational control of skeletal muscle mRNAs in response to an acute dose of leucine. The subset of skeletal muscle mRNAs that are activated consists largely of terminal oligopyrimidine mRNAs (false discovery rate: <0.05), whereas those with reduced translation had 5' untranslated regions with increased length. Only the small nuclear RNAs, which are required for ribosome biogenesis, were significantly altered in RNA abundance. The inferred functional translational program activated by dietary leucine includes increased protein synthesis capacity and energy metabolism, upregulation of sarcomere-binding proteins, modulation of circadian rhythm, and suppression of select immune components.Conclusions: These results clarify the translation program acutely stimulated by leucine in mouse skeletal muscle and establish new methodologies for use in future studies of skeletal muscle disease or aging and further examination of downstream effects of leucine on gene expression.
Project description:Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-?) and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats.
Project description:The goal of this study was to compare the transcriptome profiles (RNA-seq) of fetal and six month old goat in skeletal muscle. Total RNAs from the Chinese Xuhuai goat longissimus thoracis at fetal and six month old stages were used to construct cDNA libraries for Solexa SBS technology sequencing. After remove reads with adapters, reads in which unknown bases were more than 5% and low quality reads, we obtained 27,512,850 clean reads from the fetal caprine (FC) library and 27,582,908 clean reads from the six month old caprine (SMC) library. The total basepairs were 2,476,156,500 for FC and 2,482,461,720 for SMC. The ratio of clean reads mapped to reference genome was 45.43% for FC and 33.73% for SMC. The ratio of reads mapped to reference gene was 47.77% for FC and 34.03% for SMC. To reveal the molecular events during different development stages, genes that differentially expressed between the two libraries were identified. Clean reads that matched reference genes in each library were used to evaluate the expression level of transcripts. In total, 11663 genes were differentially expressed between the two development stages. There were 5134 genes with at least a two-fold difference in expression between FC and SMC libraries (FDR, 0.001), of which 1070 genes were up-regulated, 4064 were down-regulated in the six month old caprine compared to the fetal caprine muscle tissue, and 4911 were expressed in both library. Genes with less than one fold changes between FC and SMC libraries were excluded from further analysis. The results indicated that there were significant difference between the two development phase in gene-expression. In addition, some muscle related genes such as MyoD, Myf5, Myogenin, Mrf4, myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3), Myoglobin and DLK1 were differentially expressed. Overall design: Examination of Chinese Xuhuai goat mRNAs by deep sequencing
Project description:Goat is an important agricultural animal for meat production. Functional studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although studies on miRNAs expression profiles have been performed in various animals, relatively limited information about goat muscle miRNAs has been reported. To investigate the miRNAs involved in regulating different periods of skeletal muscle development, we herein performed a comprehensive research for expression profiles of caprine miRNAs during two developmental stages of skeletal muscles: fetal stage and six month-old stage. As a result, 15,627,457 and 15,593,721 clean reads were obtained from the fetal goat library (FC) and the six month old goat library (SMC), respectively. 464 known miRNAs and 83 novel miRNA candidates were identified. Furthermore, by comparing the miRNA profile, 336 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and then the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. To understand the regulatory network of miRNAs during muscle development, the mRNA expression profiles for the two development stages were characterized and 7322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Then the potential targets of miRNAs were compared to the DEGs, the intersection of the two gene sets were screened out and called differentially expressed targets (DE-targets), which were involved in 231 pathways. Ten of the 231 pathways that have smallest P-value were shown as network figures. Based on the analysis of pathways and networks, we found that miR-424-5p and miR-29a might have important regulatory effect on muscle development, which needed to be further studied. This study provided the first global view of the miRNAs in caprine muscle tissues. Our results help elucidation of complex regulatory networks between miRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of muscle development.
Project description:To elucidate the effects of microRNA (miRNA) regulation in skeletal muscle of adult pigs, miRNA expression profiling was performed with RNA extracted from longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples from 174 F2 pigs (~ 5.5 months of age) from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population. Total RNA was extracted from LD samples, and libraries were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform in 1 × 50 bp format. After processing, 232,826,977 total reads were aligned to the Sus scrofa reference genome (v10.2.79), with 74.8% of total reads mapping successfully. The miRDeep2 software package was utilized to quantify annotated Sus scrofa mature miRNAs from miRBase (Release 21) and to predict candidate novel miRNA precursors. Among the retained 295 normalized mature miRNA expression profiles ssc-miR-1, ssc-miR-133a-3p, ssc-miR-378, ssc-miR-206, and ssc-miR-10b were the most abundant, all of which have previously been shown to be expressed in pig skeletal muscle. Additionally, 27 unique candidate novel miRNA precursors were identified exhibiting homologous sequence to annotated human miRNAs. The composition of classes of small RNA present in this dataset was also characterized; while the majority of unique expressed sequence tags were not annotated in any of the queried databases, the most abundantly expressed class of small RNA in this dataset was miRNAs. This data provides a resource to evaluate miRNA regulation of gene expression and effects on complex trait phenotypes in adult pig skeletal muscle. The raw sequencing data were deposited in the Sequence Read Archive, BioProject PRJNA363073.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in skeletal muscle development and disease. Several acute inflammation conditions including sepsis and cancer are characterized by a loss of skeletal muscle due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. As a well-known inducer of acute inflammation, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge can cause serious skeletal muscle wasting. However, knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the course of inflammatory muscle catabolism is still very limited. In this study, RNA extracted from the skeletal muscle of pigs injected with LPS or saline was subjected to small RNA deep sequencing. We identified 304 conserved and 114 novel candidate miRNAs in the pig. Of these, four were significantly increased in the LPS-challenged samples and five were decreased. The expression of five miRNAs (ssc-miR-146a-5p, ssc-miR-221-5p, ssc-miR-148b-3p, ssc-miR-215 and ssc-miR-192) were selected for validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which found that ssc-miR-146a-5p and ssc-miR-221-5p were significantly upregulated in LPS-challenged pig skeletal muscle. Moreover, we treated mouse C2C12 myotubes with 1000 ng/mL LPS as an acute inflammation cell model. Expression of TNF-?, IL-6, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA was strongly induced by LPS. Importantly, miR-146a-5p and miR-221-5p also showed markedly increased expression in LPS-treated C2C12 myotubes, suggesting the two miRNAs may be involved in muscle catabolism systems in response to acute inflammation caused by a LPS challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine miRNA expression profiles in weaned pig skeletal muscle challenged with LPS, and furthers our understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of inflammatory muscle catabolism.
Project description:Background People with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience severe skeletal muscle dysfunction, characterized by mitochondrial abnormalities, which exacerbates the primary symptom of exercise intolerance. However, the molecular triggers and characteristics underlying mitochondrial abnormalities caused by CHF remain poorly understood. Methods and Results We recruited 28 patients with CHF caused by reduced ejection fraction and 9 controls. We simultaneously biopsied skeletal muscle from the pectoralis major in the upper limb and from the vastus lateralis in the lower limb. We phenotyped mitochondrial function in permeabilized myofibers from both sites and followed this by complete RNA sequencing to identify novel molecular abnormalities in CHF skeletal muscle. Patients with CHF presented with upper and lower limb skeletal muscle impairments to mitochondrial function that were of a similar deficit and indicative of a myopathy. Mitochondrial abnormalities were strongly correlated to symptoms. Further RNA sequencing revealed a unique transcriptome signature in CHF skeletal muscle characterized by a novel triad of differentially expressed genes related to deficits in energy metabolism including adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3, pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase domain 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. Conclusions Our data suggest an upper and lower limb metabolic myopathy that is characterized by a unique transcriptome signature in skeletal muscle of humans with CHF.