Project description:Several closely related Mn(II)-oxidizing alpha-Proteobacteria were isolated from very different marine environments: strain SI85-9A1 from the oxic/anoxic interface of a stratified Canadian fjord, strain HTCC 2156 from the surface waters off the Oregon coast, and strain AE01 from the dorsal surface of a hydrothermal vent tubeworm. 16S rRNA analysis reveals that these isolates are part of a tight phylogenetic cluster with previously characterized members of the genus Aurantimonas. Other organisms within this clade have been isolated from disparate environments such as surface waters of the Arctic and Mediterranean seas, a deep-sea hydrothermal plume, and a Caribbean coral. Further analysis of all these strains revealed that many of them are capable of oxidizing dissolved Mn(II) and producing particulate Mn(III/IV) oxides. Strains SI85-9A1 and HTCC 2156 were characterized further. Despite sharing nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences with the previously described Aurantimonas coralicida, whole genome DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that their overall genomic similarity is low. Polyphasic phenotype characterization further supported distinguishing characteristics among these bacteria. Thus SI85-9A1 and HTCC 2156 are described as two new species within the family 'Aurantimionadaceae': Aurantimonas manganoxydans sp. nov. and Aurantimonas litoralis sp. nov. This clade of bacteria is widely distributed around the globe and may be important contributors to Mn cycling in many environments. Our results highlight the difficulty in utilizing 16S rRNA-based approaches to investigate the microbial ecology of Mn(II) oxidation.
Project description:A new type of manganese-oxidizing enzyme has been identified in two alphaproteobacteria, "Aurantimonas manganoxydans" strain SI85-9A1 and Erythrobacter sp. strain SD-21. These proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry of manganese-oxidizing bands visualized by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in-gel activity assays and fast protein liquid chromatography-purified proteins. Proteins of both alphaproteobacteria contain animal heme peroxidase and hemolysin-type calcium binding domains, with the 350-kDa active Mn-oxidizing protein of A. manganoxydans containing stainable heme. The addition of both Ca(2+) ions and H(2)O(2) to the enriched protein from Aurantimonas increased manganese oxidation activity 5.9-fold, and the highest activity recorded was 700 microM min(-1) mg(-1). Mn(II) is oxidized to Mn(IV) via an Mn(III) intermediate, which is consistent with known manganese peroxidase activity in fungi. The Mn-oxidizing protein in Erythrobacter sp. strain SD-21 is 225 kDa and contains only one peroxidase domain with strong homology to the first 2,000 amino acids of the peroxidase protein from A. manganoxydans. The heme peroxidase has tentatively been named MopA (manganese-oxidizing peroxidase) and sheds new light on the molecular mechanism of Mn oxidation in prokaryotes.
Project description:Microbial Mn(II) oxidation has important biogeochemical consequences in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments, but many aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of this process remain obscure. Here, we report genomic insights into Mn(II) oxidation by the marine alphaproteobacterium Aurantimonas sp. strain SI85-9A1, isolated from the oxic/anoxic interface of a stratified fjord. The SI85-9A1 genome harbors the genetic potential for metabolic versatility, with genes for organoheterotrophy, methylotrophy, oxidation of sulfur and carbon monoxide, the ability to grow over a wide range of O(2) concentrations (including microaerobic conditions), and the complete Calvin cycle for carbon fixation. Although no growth could be detected under autotrophic conditions with Mn(II) as the sole electron donor, cultures of SI85-9A1 grown on glycerol are dramatically stimulated by addition of Mn(II), suggesting an energetic benefit from Mn(II) oxidation. A putative Mn(II) oxidase is encoded by duplicated multicopper oxidase genes that have a complex evolutionary history including multiple gene duplication, loss, and ancient horizontal transfer events. The Mn(II) oxidase was most abundant in the extracellular fraction, where it cooccurs with a putative hemolysin-type Ca(2+)-binding peroxidase. Regulatory elements governing the cellular response to Fe and Mn concentration were identified, and 39 targets of these regulators were detected. The putative Mn(II) oxidase genes were not among the predicted targets, indicating that regulation of Mn(II) oxidation is controlled by other factors yet to be identified. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the physiology and biochemistry of Mn(II) oxidation and reveal a genome specialized for life at the oxic/anoxic interface.
Project description:The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) HBx regulatory protein is required for HBV replication and involved in HBV-related carcinogenesis. HBx interacts with chromatin modifying enzymes and transcription factors to modulate histone post-translational modifications and to regulate viral cccDNA transcription and cellular gene expression. Aiming to identify genes and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) directly targeted by HBx, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to analyse HBV recruitment on host cell chromatin in cells replicating HBV.ChIP-Seq high throughput sequencing of HBx-bound fragments was used to obtain a high-resolution, unbiased, mapping of HBx binding sites across the genome in HBV replicating cells. Protein-coding genes and ncRNAs involved in cell metabolism, chromatin dynamics and cancer were enriched among HBx targets together with genes/ncRNAs known to modulate HBV replication. The direct transcriptional activation of genes/miRNAs that potentiate endocytosis (Ras-related in brain (RAB) GTPase family) and autophagy (autophagy related (ATG) genes, beclin-1, miR-33a) and the transcriptional repression of microRNAs (miR-138, miR-224, miR-576, miR-596) that directly target the HBV pgRNA and would inhibit HBV replication, contribute to HBx-mediated increase of HBV replication.Our ChIP-Seq analysis of HBx genome wide chromatin recruitment defined the repertoire of genes and ncRNAs directly targeted by HBx and led to the identification of new mechanisms by which HBx positively regulates cccDNA transcription and HBV replication.
Project description:The genus Aurantimonas, proposed in 2003, encompasses four species from environmental sources, including Aurantimonas altamirensis, isolated from a cave wall in Spain. Here, we report what we believe are the first cases of the recovery of A. altamirensis from human clinical materials.
Project description:In hepatocyte nuclei, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes occur episomally as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). The HBV X protein (HBx) is required to initiate and maintain HBV replication. The functional nuclear localization of cccDNA and HBx remains unexplored.To identify virus-host genome interactions and the underlying nuclear landscape for the first time, we combined circular chromosome conformation capture (4C) with RNA-seq and ChIP-seq. Moreover, we studied HBx-binding to HBV episomes. In HBV-positive HepaRG hepatocytes, we observed preferential association of HBV episomes and HBx with actively transcribed nuclear domains on the host genome correlating in size with constrained topological units of chromatin. Interestingly, HBx alone occupied transcribed chromatin domains. Silencing of native HBx caused reduced episomal HBV stability.As part of the HBV episome, HBx might stabilize HBV episomal nuclear localization. Our observations may contribute to the understanding of long-term episomal stability and the facilitation of viral persistence. The exact mechanism by which HBx contributes to HBV nuclear persistence warrants further investigations.