Project description:Rice stripe virus (RSV), the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS) and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS) adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.
Project description:Rice stripe virus (RSV, genus Tenuivirus, family Phenuiviridae) is the causal agent of rice stripe disease transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus) in a persistent propagative manner. The midgut and salivary glands of SBPH are the first and last barriers to the viral circulation and transmission processes, respectively; however, the precise mechanisms used by RSV to cross these organs and transmit to rice plants have not been fully elucidated. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequence of L. striatellus ?-tubulin 2 (LsTUB) and found that RSV infection increased the level of LsTUB in vivo. Furthermore, LsTUB was shown to co-localize with RSV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) in vivo and bound NS3 at positions 74-76 and 80-82 in vitro. Transient gene silencing of LsTUB expression caused a significant reduction in detectable RSV loads and viral NS3 expression levels, but had no effect on NS3 silencing suppressor activity and viral replication in insect cells. However, suppression of LsTUB attenuated viral spread in the bodies of SBPHs and decreased RSV transmission rates to rice plants. Electrical penetration graphs (EPG) showed that LsTUB knockdown by RNAi did not impact SBPH feeding; therefore, the reduction in RSV transmission rates was likely caused by a decrease in viral loads inside the planthopper. These findings suggest that LsTUB mediates the passage of RSV through midgut and salivary glands and leads to successful horizontal transmission.
Project description:Sphingolipids and their metabolites have been implicated in viral infection and replication in mammal cells but how their metabolizing enzymes in the host are regulated by viruses remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 12 sphingolipid genes and their regulation by Rice stripe virus in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén), a serious pest of rice throughout eastern Asia. According to protein sequence similarity, we identified 12 sphingolipid enzyme genes in L. striatellus. By comparing their mRNA levels in viruliferous versus nonviruliferous L. striatellus at different life stages by qPCR, we found that RSV infection upregulated six genes (LsCGT1, LsNAGA1, LsSGPP, LsSMPD4, LsSMS, and LsSPT) in most stages of L. striatellus Especially, four genes (LsCGT1, LsSMPD2, LsNAGA1, and LsSMS) and another three genes (LsNAGA1, LsSGPP, and LsSMS) were significantly upregulated in viruliferous third-instar and fourth-instar nymphs, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that RSV infection increased the levels of various ceramides, such as Cer18:0, Cer20:0, and Cer22:0 species, in third and fourth instar L. striatellus nymphs. Together, these results demonstrate that RSV infection alters the transcript levels of various sphingolipid enzymes and the contents of sphingolipids in L. striatellus, indicating that sphingolipids may be important for RSV infection or replication in L. striatellus.
Project description:The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an essential protagonist in host-pathogen interactions. Among the three classes of enzymes in the UPS, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 plays a dual role in viral pathogenesis; however, the role of insect E2s in interactions with plant viruses is unclear. Twenty E2-encoding genes in Laodelphax striatellus, the small brown planthopper, were identified and classified into 17 groups by transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis. Full-length cDNAs of four LstrE2s (LstrE2 A/E/G2/H) were obtained by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR) analysis. Expression of the four LstrE2s showed tissue- and development-specific patterns. RT-qPCR analyses revealed that Rice stripe viruse (RSV) infection increased the level of LstrE2 A/E/G2/H. Further study indicated that repression of LstrE2 E via RNAi caused significant increases in the expression of RSV coat protein mRNA and protein levels. These findings suggest that LstrE2 E inhibits RSV accumulation in the planthopper body. Understanding the function of LstrE2 E in RSV accumulation may ultimately result in the development of novel antiviral strategies.
Project description:The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to determine gene functions in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (small brown planthopper). Selection of suitable reference gene(s) for normalizations of RT-qPCR data is critical for reliable results. To date, reports on identification of suitable L. striatellus reference genes are still very limited. L. striatellus is a destructive rice pest and it can transmit multiple viruses, including Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), Rice stripe virus (RSV), and Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV), to many important cereal crops worldwide. In this study, we examined the stablity of seven selected candidate reference genes in L. striatellus at different developmental stages, in different tissues, in RBSDV- or RSV-infected L. striatellus or in RBSDV-infected and Lssynaptojanin 1 (LsSYNJ1)-silenced L. striatellus. The RT-qPCR data representing individual candidate genes were analyzed using five different methods: the delta Ct method, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the RefFinder algorithm, respectively. The most stable reference gene for the specific condition was selected according to a comprehensive analysis using the RefFinder method. Ribosomal protein L5 (LsRPL5) and LsRPL8 are the most stably expressed genes in L. striatellus at different developmental stages. Alpha-1-tubulin (Ls?-TUB) is the most stably expressed reference gene in different tissues of RBSDV viruliferous (RBSDV-V) or non-viruliferous (RBSDV-NV) L. striatellus. LsRPL8 is the most stably expressed reference gene in RBSDV-V or RSV viruliferous (RSV-V) L. striatellus, while beta-tubulin (Ls?-TUB) is the most stably expressed reference gene in RBSDV-V and LsSYNJ1-silenced L. striatellus. The selected reference genes were further investigated during analyses of RBSDV P5-1 and P10 gene expression in different tissues from RBSDV-V or RBSDV-NV L. striatellus. The stably expressed reference genes identified in this study will benefit future gene function studies using L. striatellus.
Project description:Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, which relies on the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén) for its transmission in a persistent, circulative-propagative manner. To be transmitted, virus must cross the midgut and salivary glands epithelial barriers in a transcytosis mechanism where vector receptors interact with virions, and as propagative virus, RSV need utilize host components to complete viral propagation in vector cells. At present, these mechanisms remain unknown. In this paper, we screened L. striatellus proteins, separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), as potential RSV binding molecules using a virus overlay assay of protein blots. The results, five L. striatellus proteins that bound to purified RSV particles in vitro were resolved and identified using mass spectrometry. The virus-binding capacities of five proteins were further elucidated in yeast two-hybrid screen (YTHS) and virus-binding experiments of expressed proteins. Among five proteins, the receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH3) did not interact with RSV nucleocapsid protein (NCP) in YTHS and in far-Western blot, and three ribosomal proteins (RPL5, RPL7a and RPL8) had specific interactions with RSV. In dot immunobinding assay (DIBA), all five proteins were able to bind to RSV particles. The five proteins' potential contributions to the interactions between RSV and L. striatellus were discussed. We proposed that RACK and GAPDH3 might be involved in the epithelial transcytosis of virus particles, and three ribosomal proteins probably played potential crucial roles in the infection and propagation of RSV in vector cells.
Project description:RNA interference (RNAi) has attracted attention as a promising approach to control plant viruses in their insect vectors. In the present study, to suppress replication of the rice stripe virus (RSV) in its vector, Laodelphax striatellus, using RNAi, dsRNAs against L. striatellus genes that are strongly upregulated upon RSV infection were delivered through a rice leaf-mediated method. RNAi-based silencing of peroxiredoxin, cathepsin B, and cytochrome P450 resulted in significant down regulation of the NS3 gene of RSV, achieving a transcriptional reduction greater than 73.6% at a concentration of 100 ng/?l and, possibly compromising viral replication. L. striatellus genes might play crucial roles in the transmission of RSV; transcriptional silencing of these genes could suppress viral replication in L. striatellus. These results suggest effective RNAi-based approaches for controlling RSV and provide insight into RSV-L. striatellus interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV), which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only a few genomic sequences are available for this species. To investigate its transcriptome and determine the differences between viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, we employed 454-FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing to generate EST databases of this insect. RESULTS: We obtained 201,281 and 218,681 high-quality reads from viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, respectively, with an average read length as 230 bp. These reads were assembled into contigs and two EST databases were generated. When all reads were combined, 16,885 contigs and 24,607 singletons (a total of 41,492 unigenes) were obtained, which represents a transcriptome of the insect. BlastX search against the NCBI-NR database revealed that only 6,873 (16.6%) of these unigenes have significant matches. Comparison of the distribution of GO classification among viruliferous, naïve, and combined EST databases indicated that these libraries are broadly representative of the L. striatellus transcriptomes. Functionally diverse transcripts from RSV, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia and yeast-like symbiotes were identified, which reflects the possible lifestyles of these microbial symbionts that live in the cells of the host insect. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that L. striatellus encodes similar innate immunity regulatory systems as other insects, such as RNA interference, JAK/STAT and partial Imd cascades, which might be involved in defense against viral infection. In addition, we determined the differences in gene expression between vector and naïve samples, which generated a list of candidate genes that are potentially involved in the symbiosis of L. striatellus and RSV. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the present study is the first description of a genomic project for L. striatellus. The identification of transcripts from RSV, Wolbachia, yeast-like symbiotes and genes abundantly expressed in viruliferous insect, provided a starting-point for investigating the molecular basis of symbiosis among these organisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most plant viruses depend on vector insects for transmission. Upon viral infection, virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) can target both viral and host transcripts. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is a persistent-propagative virus transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, Fallen) and can cause a severe disease on rice. RESULTS:To investigate how vsiRNAs regulate gene expressions in the host plant and the insect vector, we analyzed the expression profiles of small RNAs (sRNAs) and mRNAs in RSV-infected rice and RSV-infected planthopper. We obtained 88,247 vsiRNAs in rice that were predominantly derived from the terminal regions of the RSV RNA segments, and 351,655 vsiRNAs in planthopper that displayed relatively even distributions on RSV RNA segments. 38,112 and 80,698 unique vsiRNAs were found only in rice and planthopper, respectively, while 14,006 unique vsiRNAs were found in both of them. Compared to mock-inoculated rice, 273 genes were significantly down-regulated genes (DRGs) in RSV-infected rice, among which 192 (70.3%) were potential targets of vsiRNAs based on sequence complementarity. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these 192 DRGs were enriched in genes involved in kinase activity, carbohydrate binding and protein binding. Similarly, 265 DRGs were identified in RSV-infected planthoppers, among which 126 (47.5%) were potential targets of vsiRNAs. These planthopper target genes were enriched in genes that are involved in structural constituent of cuticle, serine-type endopeptidase activity, and oxidoreductase activity. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our results reveal that infection by the same virus can generate distinct vsiRNAs in different hosts to potentially regulate different biological processes, thus reflecting distinct virus-host interactions.
Project description:Ceramidases are a group of enzymes that catalyse hydrolysis of ceramides to generate fatty acid and sphingosine. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the rice small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus neutral ceramidase (nCDase), LsnCer. LsnCer was identified by sequencing the transcriptome of L. striatellus and is a protein of 717 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 79.3?kDa. Similarly to other known nCDases, the optimum pH for LsnCer is 8.0 and the optimum temperature is 37?°C for its in vitro activity. LsnCer activity is inhibited by Zn(2+) significantly and Fe(2+) slightly. LsnCer has broad substrate specificity with a preference for ceramides with a medium acyl-chain or a monounsaturated long acyl-chain. Infection with rice strip virus (RSV) or treatment with insecticides significantly increased LsnCer mRNA expression and its enzymatic activity in L.?striatellus. These results suggest that LsnCer is a bona fide?nCDase that may have a role in adaption of L.?striatellus to environmental stresses.