Project description:Milk pasteurization eliminates vegetative pathogenic microorganisms and reduces microorganisms associated with spoilage. Camel milk is a well-accepted, traditionally consumed food in Arab countries. The present study aimed to investigate the microflora of pasteurized camel milk sold in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The heat resistance of the microflora was tested in culture medium and lab-sterilized milk, and its composition was verified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Further verification was performed by using separate specific primers. The identified strain survived heat treatment at 65, 72, 80, 85, and 90°C for 30, 15, 10, 5, and 2 min, respectively. An unanticipated result was obtained when an enterotoxin producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus showed abnormal resistance to heat treatment. The enterotoxin gene within the PCR fragment was identified as enterotoxin C by DNA sequencing. During Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis, the isolated enterotoxin C genes showed >99% similarity to published database sequences of the Staphylococcus aureus strain SAI48 staphylococcal enterotoxin C variant v4 (sec) gene. The decimal reduction value (D-value) at 90°C (D90) was determined after 10 s. This is the first time to report this abnormally heat resistant and enterotoxin-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The use of ultra-high temperatures (UHTs) is preferable for reducing or killing bacteria in camel milk, especially if this problem is encountered in many camel milk factories.
Project description:In a previous study, we reported that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) isolated from five donor milk samples possessed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus or GBS. Herein, we present a broader evaluation of the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity by screening HMOs from 14 new donors against three strains of GBS and two of the ESKAPE pathogens of particular interest to child health, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Growth and biofilm assays showed that HMOs from these new donors possessed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against all three strains of GBS, antibiofilm activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA300, and antimicrobial activity against A. baumannii strain ATCC 19606.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a significant pathogen that can source a variety of illness worldwide. In this announcement, we report here the complete genome sequence of S. aureus strain JDFM SA01, isolated from a milk filter collected from Korean dairy farm. The final complete genome assembly consists of one circular chromosome (2,748,925 bp) with an overall GC content of 32.9% and one circular plasmid sequence (24,655 bp) with a GC content of 28.7%.
Project description:The primary purpose of this study was to determine if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains could be identified in the milk of dairy cattle in a Paso del Norte region dairy of the United States. Using physiological and PCR-based identification schemes, a total of 40 Staph. aureus strains were isolated from 29 raw milk samples of 133 total samples analyzed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with the SmaI enzyme revealed that the 40 confirmed strains were represented by 5 pulsed-field types, which each contained 3 or more strains. Of 7 hospital strains isolated from cows undergoing antibiotic therapy, 3 demonstrated resistance to 3 or more antimicrobial classes and displayed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. A secondary purpose of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of strains isolated in this study to genomically characterized Staph. aureus strains. Therefore, Roche 454 GS (Roche Diagnostics Corp., Dallas, TX) pyrosequencing was used to produce draft genome sequences of an MRSA raw milk isolate (H29) and a methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (PB32). Analysis using the BLASTn database (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) demonstrated that the H29 draft genome was highly homologous to the human MRSA strain JH1, yet the ?-lactamase plasmid carried by H29 was different from that carried by JH1. Genomic analysis of H29 also clearly explained the multidrug resistance phenotype of this raw milk isolate. Analysis of the PB32 draft genome (using BLASTn) demonstrated that this raw milk isolate was most related to human MRSA strain 04-02981. Although PB32 is not a MRSA, the PB32 draft genome did reveal the presence of a unique staphylococcal cassette mec (SCCmec) remnant. In addition, the PB32 draft genome revealed the presence of a novel bovine staphylococcal pathogenicity island, SaPIbovPB32. This study demonstrates the presence of clones closely related to human and (or) bovine Staph. aureus strains circulating in a dairy herd.
Project description:Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus agnetis are two coagulase-variable staphylococcal species that can be isolated from bovine milk and are difficult to differentiate. The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of bovine milk origin from a collection that had previously been characterized as coagulase-positive S. hyicus based on phenotypic species identification methods and to develop a PCR-based method for differentiating S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and Staphylococcus aureus Isolates (n = 62) were selected from a previous study in which milk samples were collected from cows on 15 dairy herds. Isolates were coagulase tested and identified to the species level using housekeeping gene sequencing. A multiplex PCR to differentiate S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus was developed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was conducted to strain type the isolates. Based on gene sequencing, 44/62 of the isolates were determined to be either S. agnetis (n = 43) or S. hyicus (n = 1). Overall, 88% (37/42) of coagulase-positive S. agnetis isolates were found to be coagulase positive at 4 h. The herd-level prevalence of coagulase-positive S. agnetis ranged from 0 to 2.17%. Strain typing identified 23 different strains. Six strains were identified more than once and from multiple cows within the herd. Three strains were isolated from cows at more than one time point, with 41 to 264 days between samplings. These data suggest that S. agnetis is likely more prevalent on dairy farms than S. hyicus Also, some S. agnetis isolates in this study appeared to be contagious and associated with persistent infections.
Project description:A methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was isolated from refractory breast abscesses of 12-year-old girl in Japan, and classified into ST88, spa-t1245 and coa-IIIa. This strain harboured PVL phage ?Sa2usa, which is usually found in ST8 community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus clone USA300.
Project description:Breast milk is the first choice in feeding newborn infants and provides multiple benefits for their growth and development. <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> usually exists in breast milk and is considered one of the most important causative infective agents. To be effective in preventing and controlling <i>S. aureus</i> infections among infants, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and molecular characteristics of <i>S. aureus</i> isolated from 1102 samples of breast milk between 2015 and 2016 in Shanghai, China. Out of 71 <i>S. aureus</i> strains isolated, 15 (21.1%, 15/71) were MRSA and all the strains were characterized by <i>spa</i> typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC<i>mec</i> typing, antibiotic resistance testing and virulence-associated genes. A total of 18 distinct sequence types (STs) and 36 <i>spa</i> types were identified within the 71 isolates, among which the most frequently represented was ST398 (19.7%, 14/71), followed by ST7 (18.3%, 13/71), ST59 (16.9%, 12/71). The three predominant STs accounted for more than one half of all <i>S. aureus</i> isolates. The most prevalent <i>spa</i> types were <i>t</i>091 (12.7%, 9/71), followed by <i>t</i>571 (8.5%, 6/71), <i>t</i>189 (7.0%, 5/71), <i>t</i>034 (5.6%, 4/71), <i>t</i>437 (5.6%, 4/71), and <i>t</i>701 (4.2%, 3/71). All MRSA isolates belonged to SCC<i>mec</i> IV and V, accounting for 66.7 and 33.3% respectively. Notably, 23 (32.4%) <i>S. aureus</i> strains were multidrug resistance (MDR), including 4 (5.6%) MRSA and 19 (26.8%) MSSA strains, and MDR isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. All isolates exhibited simultaneous carriage of at least 5 of 33 possible virulence genes and the most prevalent genes detected were <i>icaA</i> (100%), <i>clfA</i> (100%), <i>hla</i> (100%), <i>sdrC</i> (94.4%), <i>hlg</i>2 (88.7%), <i>lukE</i> (57.8%). 39 (54.9%, 39/71) isolates, including 9 (12.7%) of MRSA isolates, harbored ?10 tested virulence genes evaluated in this study. The <i>pvl</i> gene was detected in 8 strains, which represented 5 different STs, with ST59 being the most one. Overall, our findings showed that <i>S. aureus</i> strains isolated from breast milk were mainly MSSA (78.9%, 56/71) and exhibited high genetic diversity in Shanghai area of China. Breast milk was a reservoir for LA-SA (ST398) and CA-SA (ST59), which was likely a vehicle for transmission of multidrug-resistant <i>S. aureus</i> and MRSA lineages. This is a potential public health risk and highlights the need for good hygiene practices to reduce the risk of infant infections.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance has been reported since the 1940s in both human and veterinary medicine. Many years of monitoring milk samples in South Africa led to identification of a novel maltose-negative Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strain, which appears to be an emerging pathogen. In this study, the susceptibility of this strain to antibiotics was evaluated over time, during diverse seasons in various provinces and according to somatic cell count (SCC) categories. A data set of 271 maltose-negative S. aureus isolates, from milk samples of 117 dairy herds, was examined using the disk diffusion method, between 2010 and 2017. This study also compared the susceptibility testing of 57 maltose-negative and 57 maltose-positive S. aureus isolated from 38 farms, from three provinces using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC results for the maltose-negative S. aureus isolates showed highest resistance to ampicillin (100%) and penicillin (47.4) and lowest resistance (1.8%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. The maltose-negative S. aureus isolates showed overall significantly increased antibiotic resistance compared to the maltose-positive strains, as well as multidrug resistance. Producers and veterinarians should consider probability of cure of such organisms (seemingly non-chronic) when adapting management and treatment, preventing unnecessary culling.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human milk and infant gut microbiota are essential for the immune system maturation and protection against infections. There is scarce information on the microbiological composition of breast milk in general, and none from developing countries. The objective of the study was to characterize the breast milk and gut microbiota from mothers and infants from southern Mozambique, where infections and breastfeeding are prevalent.<h4>Methods</h4>A community-based study was undertaken among 121 pairs of women and infants. Breast milk and infant's faeces were analyzed by bacterial culture and molecular methods. Breast milk samples were screened for HIV RNA by RT-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>The most frequent bacterial groups isolated by culture media in breast milk were Staphylococci (96.4%), Streptococci (92.7%) and Lactobacilli (56.4%). HIV RNA was detected in 24% of the samples. Staphylococcus hominis, S. aureus, and S.parasanguis were more frequently isolated in infants ?14 days of life. Women on exclusive breastfeeding presented higher proportion of S. parasanguis in breast milk than those on mixed infant feeding (36.4% versus 11.1%, p?=?0.035). Bacterial diversity (mean number of bacterial species isolated by sample: 10.4 versus 8.5; p?=?0.004) and the frequency of Lactobacillus spp (75.9% versus 36%, p?=?0.003) were higher in the specimens with HIV RNA than in those without it. The main bacterial groups found in infant's faeces were Bifidobacterium, Streptococci and Enterococci.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Women with HIV RNA in breast milk had a different pattern of microbiological composition, suggesting specific immunopathological phenomena in HIV-infected women. Both breast milk and faecal microbiota composition varied with lactation period, which might be related to changes in the type of feeding over time and/or in the milk's biochemical characteristics. These findings provide insights into interactions between commensal bacteria and HIV infection in human milk and the role of these bacteria in mucosal protection against infections in breastfed infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although Staphylococcus aureus is considered the main etiological agent of infectious mastitis, recent studies have suggested that coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) may also play an important role in such infections. The aims of this work were to isolate staphylococci from milk of women with lactational mastitis, to select and characterize the CNS isolates, and to compare such properties with those displayed by CNS strains isolated from milk of healthy women. RESULTS: The milk of 30 women was collected and bacterial growth was noted in 27 of them, of which Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated from 26 patients and S. aureus from 8. Among the 270 staphylococcal isolates recovered from milk of women with mastitis, 200 were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis by phenotypic assays, species-specific PCR and PCR sequencing. They were typified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping. The PFGE profiles of the S. epidermidis strains were compared with those of 105 isolates from milk of healthy women. A representative of the 76 different PFGE profiles was selected to study the incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. The number of strains that contained the biofilm-related icaD gene and that showed resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and mupirocin was significantly higher among the strains isolated from mastitic milk. CONCLUSION: S. epidermidis may be a frequent but largely underrated cause of infectious mastitis in lactating women. The resistance to diverse antibiotics and a higher ability to form biofilms found among the strains isolated from milk of women suffering mastitis may explain the chronic and/or recurrent nature of this infectious condition.