Project description:The role of rhizosphere microbial communities in the degradation of hydrocarbons remains poorly understood and is a field of active study. We used high throughput sequencing to explore the rhizosphere microbial diversity in the alfalfa and barley planted oil contaminated soil samples. The analysis of 16s rRNA sequences showed Proteobacteria to be the most enriched (45.9%) followed by Bacteriodetes (21.4%) and Actinobacteria (10.4%) phyla. The results also indicated differences in the microbial diversity among the oil contaminated planted soil samples. The oil contaminated planted soil samples showed a higher richness in the microbial flora when compared to that of untreated samples, as indicated by the Chao1 indices. However, the trend was different for the diversity measure, where oil contaminated barley planted soil samples showed slightly lower diversity indices. While the clustering of soil samples grouped the oil contaminated samples within and across the plant types, the clean sandy soil samples formed a separate group. The oil contaminated rhizosphere soil showed an enrichment of known oil-degrading genera, such as Alcanivorax and Aequorivita, later being specifically enriched in the contaminated soil samples planted with barley. Overall, we found a few well known oil-degrading bacterial groups to be enriched in the oil contaminated planted soil samples compared to the untreated samples. Further, phyla such as Thermi and Gemmatimonadetes showed an enrichment in the oil contaminated soil samples, indicating their potential role in hydrocarbon degradation. The findings of the current study will be useful in understanding the rhizosphere microflora responsible for oil degradation and thus can help in designing appropriate phytoremediation strategies for oil contaminated lands.
Project description:Soil contaminated with the heavy metal Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread problem in many parts of the world. Based on metagenomic analysis, we investigated the functional potential and structural diversity of the microbial community in Cd-contaminated and non-contaminated soil samples and we explored the associated metabolic pathway network in cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG).The results showed that microorganisms in these soils were quite abundant, and many of them possessed numerous physiological functions. However, Cd-contamination has the potential to reduce the microbial diversity and further alter the community structure in the soil. Notably, function analysis of the crucial microorganisms (e. g. Proteobacteria, Sulfuricella and Thiobacillus) indicated that these bacteria and their corresponding physiological functions were important for the community to cope with Cd pollution. The COG annotation demonstrated that the predominant category was the microbial metabolism cluster in both soil samples, while the relative abundance of metabolic genes was increased in the Cd-contaminated soil. The KEGG annotation results exhibited that the non-contaminated soil had more genes, pathways, modules, orthologies and enzymes involved in metabolic pathways of microbial communities than the Cd-contaminated soil. The relative abundance of some dominant KEGG pathways increased in the Cd contaminated soil, and they were mostly enriched to the metabolism, biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids, fatty acids and nucleotides, which was related to Cd tolerance of the microorganisms.Cd-contamination can decrease the taxonomic species of microbes in soil and change the soil microbial composition. The functional pathways involved in the soil change with microbial structure variation, many of which are related to the heavy metal tolerance of soil microbes. The Cd-contaminated soil microbes is a potential resource for exploring cadmium resistant or tolerant bacteria.
Project description:Relatively little is known about the microbial communities adapted to soil environments contaminated with aged complex hydrocarbon mixtures, especially in the subsurface soil layers. In this work we studied the microbial communities in two different soil profiles down to the depth of 7 m which originated from a 30-year-old site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and from a clean site next to the contaminated site. The concentration of oxygen in the contaminated soil profile was strongly reduced in soil layers below 1 m depth but not in the clean soil profile. Total microbial biomass and community composition was analyzed by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) measurements. The diversity of fungi and actinobacteria was investigated more in detail by construction of rDNA-based clone libraries. The results revealed that there was a significant and diverse microbial community in subsoils at depth below 2 m, also in conditions where oxygen was limiting. The diversity of actinobacteria was different in the two soil profiles; the contaminated soil profile was dominated by Mycobacterium -related sequences whereas sequences from the clean soil samples were related to other, generally uncultured organisms, some of which may represent two new subclasses of actinobacteria. One dominating fungal sequence which matched with the ascomycotes Acremonium sp. and Paecilomyces sp. was identified both in clean and in contaminated soil profiles. Thus, although the relative amounts of fungi and actinobacteria in these microbial communities were highest in the upper soil layers, many representatives from these groups were found in hydrocarbon contaminated subsoils even under oxygen limited conditions.
Project description:Heavy metal pollution is a serious global environmental problem as it adversely affects plant growth and genetic variation. It also alters the composition and activity of soil microbial communities. The objectives of this study were to determine the soil microbial diversity, bermudagrass genetic variation in Cd contaminated or uncontaminated soils from Hunan province of China, and to evaluate Cd-tolerance of bermudagrass at different soils. The Biolog method, hydroponic experiments and simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the functional diversity of microorganisms, Cd-tolerance and the genetic diversity of bermudagrass, respectively. Four of the sampling sites were heavily contaminated with heavy metals. The total bioactivity, richness, and microbial diversity decreased with increasing concentration of heavy metal. The hydroponic experiment revealed that bermudagrass populations collected from polluted sites have evolved, encompassing the feature of a higher resistance to Cd toxicity. Higher genetic diversity was observed to be more in contaminated populations than in uncontaminated populations. Heavy metal pollution can result in adverse effects on plant growth, soil microbial diversity and activity, and apparently has a stronger impact on the genetic structure. The results of this study provide new insights and a background to produce a genetic description of populations in a species that is suitable for use in phytoremediation practices.
Project description:Anthropogenic activities accompanied by heavy metal waste threaten the environment. Heavy metal pollution alters the soil microbial community composition, and the microorganisms that adapt to this stress increase in abundance. The remediation process of contaminated soil not only reduces the concentration of heavy metals but also alters the bacterial communities. High-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing techniques were applied to understand the changes in soil microbial communities. Using the remediation approach of the soil mixing, the concentrations of heavy metals in the contaminated areas were diluted and the soil environment was changed. The change of soil environment as a disturbance contributed to the alteration of microbial diversity of the remediated areas. The pH and heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were the most influential factors driving the changes in community structure. The bacterial community structure was significantly different among sample areas. The decrease of heavy metals in soil may be the important factors that changed the microbial composition. This study provides the better understanding of the changes in composition of microbial communities affected by the remediation process in heavy metal-contaminated soil.
Project description:Rhizodegradation is a promising cleanup technology where microorganisms degrade soil contaminants in the rhizosphere. A symbiotic relationship is expected to occur between plant roots and soil microorganisms in contaminated soils that enhances natural microbial degradation. However, little is known about how different initial microbiotas influence the rhizodegradation outcome. Recent studies have hinted that soil initial diversity has a determining effect on the outcome of contaminant degradation. To test this, we either planted (P) or not (NP) balsam poplars (<i>Populus balsamifera</i>) in two soils of contrasting diversity (agricultural and forest) that were contaminated or not with 50 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> of phenanthrene (PHE). The DNA from the rhizosphere of the P and the bulk soil of the NP pots was extracted and the bacterial genes encoding the 16S rRNA, the PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase alpha subunits (PAH-RHDα) of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the fungal ITS region were sequenced to characterize the microbial communities. The abundances of the PAH-RHDα genes were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Plant presence had a significant effect on PHE degradation only in the forest soil, whereas both NP and P agricultural soils degraded the same amount of PHE. Fungal communities were mainly affected by plant presence, whereas bacterial communities were principally affected by the soil type, and upon contamination the dominant PAH-degrading community was similarly constrained by soil type. Our results highlight the crucial importance of soil microbial and physicochemical characteristics in the outcome of rhizoremediation.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a group of organic contaminants that pose a risk to ecosystems' health. Phytoremediation is a promising biotechnology with the potential to restore PAH-contaminated soils. However, some limitations prevent it from becoming the remediation technology of reference, despite being environmentally friendlier than mainstream physicochemical alternatives. Recent reports suggest that the original soil microbial diversity is the key to harnessing the potential of phytoremediation. Therefore, this study focused on determining the effect of two different soil types in the fate of phenanthrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) under balsam poplar remediation. Poplar increased the degradation of phenanthrene in forest, but not in agricultural soil. The fungi were affected by poplars, whereas total bacteria and specific PAH-degrading bacteria were constrained by soil type, leading to different degradation patterns between soils. These results highlight the importance of performing preliminary microbiological studies of contaminated soils to determine whether plant presence could improve remediation rates or not.
Project description:The relationship between microbial biodiversity and soil function is an important issue in ecology, yet most studies have been performed in pristine ecosystems. Here, we assess the role of microbial diversity in ecological function and remediation strategies in diesel-contaminated soils. Soil microbial diversity was manipulated using a removal by dilution approach and microbial functions were determined using both metagenomic analyses and enzymatic assays. A shift from Proteobacteria- to Actinobacteria-dominant communities was observed when species diversity was reduced. Metagenomic analysis showed that a large proportion of functional gene categories were significantly altered by the reduction in biodiversity. The abundance of genes related to the nitrogen cycle was significantly reduced in the low-diversity community, impairing denitrification. In contrast, the efficiency of diesel biodegradation was increased in the low-diversity community and was further enhanced by addition of red clay as a stimulating agent. Our results suggest that the relationship between microbial diversity and ecological function involves trade-offs among ecological processes, and should not be generalized as a positive, neutral, or negative relationship.
Project description:Two long-term contaminated soils differing in contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cd were compared in a microcosm experiment for changes in microbial community structure and respiration after various treatments. We observed that the extent of long-term contamination (over 200 years) by toxic elements did not change the total numbers and diversity of bacteria but influenced their community composition. Namely, numbers of Actinobacteria determined by phylum specific qPCR increased and also the proportion of Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi increased in Illumina sequence libraries in the more contaminated soil. In the experiment, secondary disturbance by supplemented cadmium (doses from double to 100-fold the concentration in the original soil) and organic substrates (cellobiose or straw) increased bacterial diversity in the less contaminated soil and decreased it in the more contaminated soil. Respiration in the experiment was higher in the more contaminated soil in all treatments and correlated with bacterial numbers. Considering the most significant changes in bacterial community, it seemed that particularly Actinobacteria withstand contamination by toxic elements. The results proved higher resistance to secondary disturbance in terms of both, respiration and bacterial community structure in the less contaminated soil.
Project description:Comparison of probe-target dissociations of probe Eub338 and Gam42a with native RNA of P. putida, in vitro transcribed 16s rRNA of P. putida, in vitro transcribed 16S rRNA of a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene contaminated soil and an uncontaminated soil sample. Functional ANOVA revealed no significant differences in the dissociation curves of probe Eub338 when hybridised to the different samples. On the opposite, the dissociation curve of probe Gam42a with native RNA of P. putida was significantly different than the dissociation curves obtained with in vitro transcribed 16S rRNA samples. Keywords: Microbial diversity, thermal dissociation analysis, CodeLink microarray Overall design: Four samples: 1) native RNA of P. putida, 2) in vitro transcribed 16S rRNA of P. putida, 3) in vitro transcribed 16S rRNA of an unconontaminated soil sample, 4) in vitro transcribed 16S rRNA of a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene contaminated soil sample. Each hybridisation experiment was done in triplicate.
Project description:Microbial communities are essential for a healthy soil ecosystem. Metals and radionuclides can exert a persistent pressure on the soil microbial community. However, little is known on the effect of long-term co-contamination of metals and radionuclides on the microbial community structure and functionality. We investigated the impact of historical discharges of the phosphate and nuclear industry on the microbial community in the Grote Nete river basin in Belgium. Eight locations were sampled along a transect to the river edge and one location further in the field. Chemical analysis demonstrated a metal and radionuclide contamination gradient and revealed a distinct clustering of the locations based on all metadata. Moreover, a relation between the chemical parameters and the bacterial community structure was demonstrated. Although no difference in biomass was observed between locations, cultivation-dependent experiments showed that communities from contaminated locations survived better on singular metals than communities from control locations. Furthermore, nitrification, a key soil ecosystem process seemed affected in contaminated locations when combining metadata with microbial profiling. These results indicate that long-term metal and radionuclide pollution impacts the microbial community structure and functionality and provides important fundamental insights into microbial community dynamics in co-metal-radionuclide contaminated sites.