Project description:Ulva flexuosa, one kind of green tide algae, has outbroken in the Yellow Sea of China during the past ten years. In the present study, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of U. flexuosa followed by annotation and comparative analysis. It indicated that the chloroplast genomes had high conservation among Ulva spp., and high rearrangement outside them. Though U. flexuosa was closer to U. linza than U. fasciata in phylogenetic tree, the average Ka/Ks between U. flexuosa and U. linza assessed by 67 protein-coding genes was higher than those between U. flexuosa and other species in Ulva spp., due to the variation of psbZ, psbM and ycf20. Our results laid the foundation for the future studies on the evolution of chloroplast genomes of Ulva, as well as the molecular identification of U. flexuosa varieties.
Project description:The <i>Mauritia flexuosa</i> L.f. palm is known as the "tree of life" given its importance as fundamental food and construction resources for humans. The species is broadly distributed in wet habitats of Amazonia and dry habitats of the Amazon and Orinoco river basins and in the Cerrado savanna. We collected 179 individuals from eight different localities throughout these habitats and used microsatellites to characterize their population structure and patterns of gene flow. Overall, we found high genetic variation, except in one savanna locality. Gene flow between populations is largely congruent with river basins and the direction of water flow within and among them, suggesting their importance for seed dispersal. Further, rivers have had a higher frequency of human settlements than forested sites, contributing to population diversity and structure through increased human use and consumption of <i>M. flexuosa</i> along rivers. Gene flow patterns revealed that migrants are sourced primarily from within the same river basin, such as those from Madeira and Tapajós basins. Our work suggests that rivers and their inhabitants are a critical element of the landscape in Amazonia and have impacted the dispersal and subsequent distribution of tropical palm species, as shown by the patterns of genetic variation in <i>M. flexuosa</i>.
Project description:We have previously shown that the Nonomuraea flexuosa Xyn11A polypeptides devoid of the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) have better thermostability than the full-length xylanase and are effective in bleaching of pulp. To produce an enzyme preparation useful for industrial applications requiring high temperature, the region encoding the CBM was deleted from the N. flexuosa xyn11A gene and the truncated gene was expressed in Trichoderma reesei. The xylanase sequence was fused to the T. reesei mannanase I (Man5A) signal sequence or 3' to a T. reesei carrier polypeptide, either the Man5A core/hinge or the cellulose binding domain (CBD) of cellobiohydrolase II (Cel6A, CBHII). The gene and fusion genes were expressed using the cellobiohydrolase 1 (cel7A, cbh1) promoter. Single-copy isogenic transformants in which the expression cassette replaced the cel7A gene were cultivated and analyzed. The transformants expressing the truncated N. flexuosa xyn11A produced clearly increased amounts of both the xylanase/fusion mRNA and xylanase activity compared to the corresponding strains expressing the full-length N. flexuosa xyn11A. The transformant expressing the cel6A CBD-truncated N. flexuosa xyn11A produced about 1.9 g liter-1 of the xylanase in laboratory-scale fermentations. The xylanase constituted about 25% of the secreted proteins. The production of the truncated xylanase did not induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. However, the UPR was induced when the full-length N. flexuosa xyn11A with an exact fusion to the cel7A terminator was expressed. We suggest that the T. reesei folding/secretion machinery is not able to cope properly with the bacterial CBM when the mRNA of the full-length N. flexuosa xyn11A is efficiently translated.
Project description:The nomenclature of Eastern Asian populations traditionally assigned to Cardamine flexuosa has remained unresolved since 2006, when they were found to be distinct from the European species Cardamine flexuosa. Apart from the informal designation "Asian Cardamine flexuosa", this taxon has also been reported under the names Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis or Cardamine hamiltonii. Here we determine its correct species name to be Cardamine occulta and present a nomenclatural survey of all relevant species names. A lectotype and epitype for Cardamine occulta and a neotype for the illegitimate name Cardamine debilis (replaced by Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis and Cardamine hamiltonii) are designated here. Cardamine occulta is a polyploid weed that most likely originated in Eastern Asia, but it has also been introduced to other continents, including Europe. Here data is presented on the first records of this invasive species in European countries. The first known record for Europe was made in Spain in 1993, and since then its occurrence has been reported from a number of European countries and regions as growing in irrigated anthropogenic habitats, such as paddy fields or flower beds, and exceptionally also in natural communities such as lake shores.
Project description:Most filarial species in the genus Onchocerca depend on Wolbachia endobacteria to successfully carry out their life cycle. O. flexuosa is a Wolbachia-free species, but its genome contains Wolbachia-like sequences presumably obtained from Wolbachia via horizontal gene transfer. Proteogenomic studies have shown that many of these Wolbachia-like sequences are expressed in adult worms.Six Wolbachia-like sequences in O. flexuosa were chosen for further study based on their sequence conservation with Wolbachia genes, length of predicted open reading frames, and expression at the RNA and/or protein levels. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical labeling were used to localize Wolbachia-like transcripts and peptides in adult worm tissues.RNA probes representing three of the six target sequences produced hybridization signals in worm tissues. These probes bound to transcripts in the intestine and lateral chords of both sexes, in the hypodermis, median chords and uteri in females, and in sperm precursor cells in males. Antibodies raised to three peptides corresponding to these transcripts bound to specific bands in a soluble extract of adult O. flexuosa by Western blot that were not labeled by control antibodies in pre-immune serum. Two of the three antibodies produced labeling patterns in adult worm sections that were similar to those of the RNA probes, while the third produced a different pattern.A subset of the Wolbachia-like sequences present in the genome of the Wolbachia-free filarial species O. flexuosa are transcribed in tissues where Wolbachia reside in infected filarial species. Some of the peptides and/or proteins derived from these transcripts appear to be concentrated in the same tissues while others may be exported to other regions of the worm. These results suggest that horizontally transferred Wolbachia genes and gene products may replicate important Wolbachia functions in uninfected filarial worms.
Project description:Allopolyploids possess complete sets of genomes derived from different parental species and exhibit a range of variation in various traits. Reproductive traits may play a key role in the reproductive isolation between allopolyploids and their parental species, thus affecting the thriving of allopolyploids. However, empirical data, especially in natural habitats, comparing reproductive trait variation between allopolyploids and their parental species remain rare. Here, we documented the flowering phenology and floral morphology of the allopolyploid wild plant Cardamine flexuosa and its diploid parents C. amara and C. hirsuta in their native range in Switzerland. The flowering of C. flexuosa started at an intermediate time compared with those of the parents and the flowering period of C. flexuosa overlapped with those of the parents. Cardamine flexuosa resembled C. hirsuta in the size of flowers and petals and the length/width ratio of petals, while it resembled C. amara in the length/width ratio of flowers. These results provide empirical evidence of the trait-dependent variation of allopolyploid phenotypes in natural habitats at the local scale. They also suggest that the variation in some reproductive traits in C. flexuosa is associated with self-fertilization. Therefore, it is helpful to consider the mating system in furthering the understanding of the processes that may have shaped trait variation in polyploids in nature.