Project description:Background:Enterococcus avium is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. E. avium can cause bacteremia, peritonitis, and intracranial suppurative infection. However, the mechanism of its pathogenesis and its adaptation to a special niche is still unclear. Results:In this study, the E. avium strain 352 was isolated from human bile and whole genome sequencing was performed. The E. avium strain 352 consists of a circular 4,794,392 bp chromosome as well as an 87,705 bp plasmid. The GC content of the chromosome is 38.98%. There are 4905 and 99 protein coding sequences in the chromosome and the plasmid, respectively. The genome of the E. avium strain 352 contains number of genes reported to be associated with bile adaption, including bsh, sbcC, mutS, nifI, galU, and hupB. There are also several virulence-associated genes including esp, fss1, fss3, ecbA, bsh, lap, clpC, clpE, and clpP. Conclusions:This study demonstrates the presence of various virulence factors of the E. avium strain 352, which has the potential to cause infections. Moreover, the genes involved in bile adaption might contribute to its ability to live in bile. Further comparative genomic studies would help to elucidate the evolution of pathogenesis of E. avium.
Project description:While a part of the native gut microflora, the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis can lead to serious infections elsewhere in the body. The draft genome of E. faecalis strain ATCC BAA-2128, isolated from piglet feces, was examined. This draft genome consists of 42 contigs, 12 of which exhibit homology to annotated plasmids.
Project description:Infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap) causes severe economic losses to the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. In an effort to better examine diversity among M. ap strains, we used optical mapping to profile genomic variations between strains of M. ap K-10 (sequenced strain) and M. ap ATCC 19698 (type strain).The assembled physical restriction map of M. ap ATCC 19698 showed a genome size of 4,839 kb compared to the sequenced K-10 genome of 4,830 kb. Interestingly, alignment of the optical map of the M. ap ATCC 19698 genome to the complete M. ap K-10 genome sequence revealed a 648-kb inversion around the origin of replication. However, Southern blotting, PCR amplification and sequencing analyses of the inverted region revealed that the genome of M. ap K-10 differs from the published sequence in the region starting from 4,197,080 bp to 11,150 bp, spanning the origin of replication. Additionally, two new copies of the coding sequences > 99.8% were identified, identical to the MAP0849c and MAP0850c genes located immediately downstream of the MAP3758c gene.The optical map of M. ap ATCC 19698 clearly indicated the miss-assembly of the sequenced genome of M. ap K-10. Moreover, it identified 2 new genes in M. ap K-10 genome. This analysis strongly advocates for the utility of physical mapping protocols to complement genome sequencing projects.
Project description:We previously isolated and characterized an Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 siphovirus from raw domestic sewage as a viral indicator of human fecal pollution. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this bacteriophage.
Project description:Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strain DSM 44156, also deposited as ATCC 25291 and TMC 724. The reference strain was originally described as a serotype 2 strain isolated from a hen by F. D. Chester in 1901.
Project description:We report the complete genome sequence of a vancomycin-resistant isolate of Enterococcus faecium derived from human feces. The genome comprises one chromosome of 2.9 Mb and three plasmids. The strain harbors a plasmid-borne vanA-type vancomycin resistance locus and is a member of multilocus sequencing type (MLST) cluster ST-17.
Project description:Light yellow-pigmented (strain PQ1) and yellow-pigmented (strain PQ2), gram-positive, non-spore-forming, nonmotile bacteria consisting of pairs or chains of cocci were isolated from the bile of a patient with cholecystitis (PQ1) and the peritoneal dialysate of another patient with peritonitis (PQ2). Morphologically and biochemically, the organisms phenotypically belonged to the genus Eterococcus. Whole-cell protein (WCP) analysis and sequence analysis of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene suggested that they are new species within the genus Enterococcus. PQ1 and PQ2 displayed less than 70% identities to other enterococcal species by WCP analysis. Sequence analysis showed that PQ1 shared the highest level of sequence similarity with Enterococcus raffinosus and E. malodoratus (sequence similarities of 99.8% to these two species). Sequence analysis of PQ2 showed that it had the highest degrees of sequence identity with the group I enterococci E. malodoratus (98.7%), E. raffinosus (98.6%), E. avium (98.6%), and E. pseudoavium (98.6%). PQ1 and PQ2 can be differentiated from the other Enterococcus spp. in groups II, III, IV, and V by their phenotypic characteristics: PQ1 and PQ2 produce acid from mannitol and sorbose and do not hydrolyze arginine, placing them in group I. The yellow pigmentation differentiates these strains from the other group I enterococci. PQ1 and PQ2 can be differentiated from each other since PQ1 does not produce acid from arabinose, whereas PQ2 does. Also, PQ1 is Enterococcus Accuprobe assay positive and pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis positive, whereas PQ2 is negative by these assays. The name Enterococcus gilvus sp. nov. is proposed for strain PQ1, and the name Enterococcus pallens sp. nov. is proposed for strain PQ2. Type strains have been deposited in culture collections as E. gilvus ATCC BAA-350 (CCUG 45553) and E. pallens ATCC BAA-351 (CCUG 45554).
Project description:<i>Enterococcus avium</i> (<i>E. avium</i>) is a common bacterium inhabiting the intestines of humans and other animals. Most strains of this species can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) <i>via</i> the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system, but the presence and genetic organization of their GAD systems are poorly characterized. In this study, our bioinformatics analyses showed that the GAD system in <i>E. avium</i> strains was generally encoded by three <i>gadB</i> genes (<i>gadB1</i>, <i>gadB2</i>, and <i>gadB3</i>), together with an antiporter gene (<i>gadC</i>) and regulator gene (<i>gadR</i>), and these genes are organized in a cluster. This finding contrasts with that for other lactic acid bacteria. <i>E. avium</i> SDMCC050406, a GABA producer isolated from human feces, was employed to investigate the contribution of the three <i>gadB</i> genes to GABA biosynthesis. The results showed that the relative expression level of <i>gadB3</i> was higher than those of <i>gadB1</i> and <i>gadB2</i> in the exponential growth and stationary phases, and this was accompanied by the synchronous transcription of <i>gadC</i>. After heterologous expression of the three <i>gadB</i> genes in <i>Escherichia coli</i> BL21 (DE3), the <i>K</i> <sub>m</sub> value of the purified GAD3 was 4.26 ± 0.48 mM, a value lower than those of the purified GAD1 and GAD2. Moreover, <i>gadB3</i> gene inactivation caused decreased GABA production, accompanied by a reduction in resistance to acid stress. These results indicated that <i>gadB3</i> plays a crucial role in GABA biosynthesis and this property endowed the strain with acid tolerance. Our findings provided insights into how <i>E. avium</i> strains survive the acidic environments of fermented foods and throughout transit through the stomach and gut while maintaining cell viability.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis is a nonmotile Gram-positive coccus, found both as a commensal organism in healthy humans and animals and as a causative agent of multiple diseases, in particular endocarditis. We sequenced the genome of E. faecalis ATCC 29212, a commonly used reference strain in laboratory studies, to complete "finished" annotated assembly (3 Mb).