Project description:The invasive plant Mikania micrantha Kunth (M. micrantha) from South America poses a significant threat to the stability and biodiversity of ecosystems. However, an effective and economical method to control M. micrantha is still lacking. RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely studied and applied in agriculture for trait improvement. Spray-induced gene silencing (SIGS) can produce RNAi silencing effects without introducing heritable modifications to the plant genome and is becoming a novel nontransformation strategy for plant protection. In this study, the genes encoding chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins were selected as targets of RNAi, based on high-throughput sequencing of M. micrantha transcriptome and bioinformatic analyses of sequence specificity. Three types of RNAi molecules, double-stranded RNA, RNAi nanomicrosphere, and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), with their corresponding short interfering RNA sequences were designed and synthesized for SIGS vector construction, from which each RNAi molecule was transcribed and extracted to be sprayed on M. micrantha leaves. Whereas water-treated control leaves remained green, leaves treated with RNAi molecules turned yellow and eventually wilted. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of target genes were significantly reduced in the RNAi-treated groups compared with those of the control, suggesting that all three types of RNAi herbicides effectively silenced the endogenous target genes, which are essential for the growth of M. micrantha. We also found that shRNA showed better silencing efficiency than the other two molecules. Taken together, our study successfully designed three types of RNAi-based herbicides that specifically silenced endogenous target genes and controlled the growth of M. micrantha. Moreover, we identified a gene family encoding chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins that is important for the growth and development of M. micrantha and could serve as potential targets for controlling the spread of M. micrantha.
Project description:Mikania micrantha is a noxious invasive plant causing enormous economic losses and ecological damage. Soil microbiome plays an important role in the invasion process of M. micrantha, while little is known about its rhizosphere microbiome composition and function. In this study, we identified the distinct rhizosphere microbial communities of M. micrantha, by comparing them with those of two coexisting native plants (Polygonum chinense and Paederia scandens) and the bulk soils, using metagenomics data from field sampling and pot experiment. As a result, the enrichment of phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria Pseudomonas and Enterobacter was consistent with the increased soil available phosphorus in M. micrantha rhizosphere. Furthermore, the pathogens of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum and pathogenic genes of type III secretion system (T3SS) were observed to be less abundant in M. micrantha rhizosphere, which might be attributed to the enrichment of biocontrol bacteria Catenulispora, Pseudomonas, and Candidatus Entotheonella and polyketide synthase (PKS) genes involved in synthesizing antibiotics and polyketides to inhibit pathogens. These findings collectively suggested that the enrichment of microbes involved in nutrient acquisition and pathogen suppression in the rhizosphere of M. micrantha largely enhances its adaptation and invasion to various environments.
Project description:A long-standing and unresolved issue in invasion biology concerns the rapid adaptation of invaders to nonindigenous environments. <i>Mikania micrantha</i> is a notorious invasive weed that causes substantial economic losses and negative ecological consequences in southern China. However, the contributions of gene flow, environmental variables, and functional genes, all generally recognized as important factors driving invasive success, to its successful invasion of southern China are not fully understood. Here, we utilized a genotyping-by-sequencing approach to sequence 306 <i>M. micrantha</i> individuals from 21 invasive populations. Based on the obtained genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we observed that all the populations possessed similar high levels of genetic diversity that were not constrained by longitude and latitude. <i>Mikania micrantha</i> was introduced multiple times and subsequently experienced rapid-range expansion with recurrent high gene flow. Using <i>F</i><sub>ST</sub> outliers, a latent factor mixed model, and the Bayesian method, we identified 38 outlier SNPs associated with environmental variables. The analysis of these outlier SNPs revealed that soil composition, temperature, precipitation, and ecological variables were important determinants affecting the invasive adaptation of <i>M. micrantha</i>. Candidate genes with outlier signatures were related to abiotic stress response. Gene family clustering analysis revealed 683 gene families unique to <i>M. micrantha</i> which may have significant implications for the growth, metabolism, and defense responses of <i>M. micrantha</i>. Forty-one genes showing significant positive selection signatures were identified. These genes mainly function in binding, DNA replication and repair, signature transduction, transcription, and cellular components. Collectively, these findings highlight the contribution of gene flow to the invasion and spread of <i>M. micrantha</i> and indicate the roles of adaptive loci and functional genes in invasive adaptation.
Project description:Mikania micrantha is one of the top 100 worst invasive species that can cause serious damage to natural ecosystems and substantial economic losses. Here, we present its 1.79 Gb chromosome-scale reference genome. Half of the genome is composed of long terminal repeat retrotransposons, 80% of which have been derived from a significant expansion in the past one million years. We identify a whole genome duplication event and recent segmental duplications, which may be responsible for its rapid environmental adaptation. Additionally, we show that M. micrantha achieves higher photosynthetic capacity by CO<sub>2</sub> absorption at night to supplement the carbon fixation during the day, as well as enhanced stem photosynthesis efficiency. Furthermore, the metabolites of M. micrantha can increase the availability of nitrogen by enriching the microbes that participate in nitrogen cycling pathways. These findings collectively provide insights into the rapid growth and invasive adaptation.
Project description:To screen allelochemical-resistant species of the alien invasive weed Mikania micrantha, we studied the allelopathic inhibition effects of the leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mikania on seed germination and seedling growth of the 26 species native or naturalized in the invaded region in South China. Seed germination was more strongly negatively affected by LAE than seedling growth. Responses of seed germination and seed growth to LAE differed differently among the target species. LAE more strongly negatively affected seed germination, but less strongly negatively affected seedling growth, in non-legume species than in legume species. LAE more strongly negatively affected seed germination and seedling growth in native species than naturalized exotic species. Therefore, naturalized exotic non-legume seedlings are more suitable than seeds of native legume species for restoration of Mikania-invaded habitats.
Project description:It is the first report on complete chloroplast genome of <i>Mikania micrantha</i> (Asteraceae), a noxious invasive weed to South China. The genome is a circular molecule of 152,092?bp in length with 37.58% average GC content, and includes a large single copy region (83,793?bp), a small single copy region (18,287?bp), and two inverted repeat regions (25,006?bp). The <i>M. micrantha</i> cp genome encodes 135 unique genes, including 90 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. ML tree based on 16 complete cpDNA from Asteraceae indicated that <i>M. micrantha</i> has a close sister relationship with <i>Ageratina adenophora</i> and <i>Praxelis clematidea</i>. The complete cpDNA of <i>M. micrantha</i> provides useful molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae) is one of the world's most invasive weeds which has been rapidly expanding in tropical Asia, including China, while its close relative M. cordata, the only Mikania species native to China, shows no harm to the local ecosystems. These two species are very similar in morphology but differ remarkably in several ecological and physiological traits, representing an ideal system for comparative analysis to investigate the genetic basis underlying invasion success. In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing on the invader M. micrantha and its native congener M. cordata in China, to unravel the genetic basis underlying the strong invasiveness of M. micrantha. For a more robust comparison, another non-invasive congener M. cordifolia was also sequenced and compared. RESULTS:A total of 52,179, 55,835, and 52,983 unigenes were obtained for M. micrantha, M. cordata, and M. cordifolia, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time dating revealed a relatively recent split between M. micrantha and M. cordata, i.e., approximately 4.81 million years ago (MYA), after their divergence with M. cordifolia (8.70 MYA). Gene ontology classifications, pathway assignments and differential expression analysis revealed higher representation or significant up-regulation of genes associated with photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein modification and stress response in M. micrantha than in M. cordata or M. cordifolia. Analysis of accelerated evolution and positive selection also suggested the importance of these related genes and processes to the adaptability and invasiveness of M. micrantha. Particularly, most (77 out of 112, i.e. 68.75%) positively selected genes found in M. micrantha could be classified into four groups, i.e., energy acquisition and utilization (10 genes), growth and reproduction (13 genes), protection and repair (34 genes), and signal transduction and expression regulation (20 genes), which may have contributed to the high adaptability of M. micrantha to various new environments and the capability to occupy a wider niche, reflected in its high invasiveness. CONCLUSIONS:We characterized the transcriptomes of the invasive species M. micrantha and its non-invasive congeners, M. cordata and M. cordifolia. A comparison of their transcriptomes provided insights into the genetic basis of the high invasiveness of M. micrantha.