Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is an infectious nosocomial disease caused by Clostridioides difficile, an opportunistic pathogen that occurs in the intestine after extensive antibiotic regimens.<h4>Results</h4>Nine C. difficile strains (CBA7201-CBA7209) were isolated from nine patients diagnosed with CDI at the national university hospital in Korea, and the whole genomes of these strains were sequenced to identify their genomic characteristics. Comparative genomic analysis was performed using 51 reference strains and the nine isolated herein. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that all 60 C. difficile strains belong to the genus Clostridioides, while core-genome tree indicated that they were divided into five groups, which was consistent with the results of MLST clade analysis. All strains were confirmed to have a clindamycin antibiotic resistance gene, but the other antibiotic resistance genes differ depending on the MLST clade. Interestingly, the six strains belonging to the sequence type 17 among the nine C. difficile strains isolated here exhibited unique genomic characteristics for PaLoc and CdtLoc, the two toxin gene loci identified in this study, and harbored similar antibiotic resistance genes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this study, we identified the specific genomic characteristics of Korean C. difficile strains, which could serve as basic information for CDI prevention and treatment in Korea.
Project description:A major function of the gut microbiota is to provide colonization resistance, wherein pathogens are inhibited or suppressed below infectious levels. However, the fraction of gut microbiota required for colonization resistance remains unclear. We used culturomics to isolate a gut microbiota culture collection comprising 1,590 isolates belonging to 102 species. This culture collection represents 34.57% of the taxonomic diversity and 70% functional capacity, as estimated by metagenomic sequencing of the fecal samples used for culture. Using whole-genome sequencing, we characterized species representatives from this collection and predicted their phenotypic traits, further characterizing isolates by defining nutrient utilization profiles and short-chain fatty acid production. When screened with a coculture assay, 66 species in our culture collection inhibited Clostridioides difficile Several phenotypes, particularly, growth rate, production of SCFAs, and the utilization of mannitol, sorbitol, or succinate, correlated with C. difficile inhibition. We used a combinatorial community assembly approach to formulate defined bacterial mixes inhibitory to C. difficile We tested 256 combinations and found that both species composition and blend size were important in inhibition. Our results show that the interaction of bacteria with one another in a mix and with other members of gut commensals must be investigated to design defined bacterial mixes for inhibiting C. difficile in vivo IMPORTANCE Antibiotic treatment causes instability of gut microbiota and the loss of colonization resistance, thus allowing pathogens such as Clostridioides difficile to colonize and causing recurrent infection and mortality. Although fecal microbiome transplantation has been shown to be an effective treatment for C. difficile infection (CDI), a more desirable approach would be the use of a defined mix of inhibitory gut bacteria. The C. difficile-inhibiting species and bacterial combinations identified herein improve the understanding of the ecological interactions controlling colonization resistance against C. difficile and could aid in the design of defined bacteriotherapy as a nonantibiotic alternative against CDI.
Project description:The intestines house a diverse microbiota that must compete for nutrients to survive, but the specific limiting nutrients that control pathogen colonization are not clearly defined. Clostridioides difficile colonization typically requires prior disruption of the microbiota, suggesting that outcompeting commensals for resources is key in establishing C. difficile infection (CDI). The immune protein calprotectin (CP) is released into the gut lumen during CDI to chelate zinc (Zn) and other essential nutrient metals. Yet, the impact of Zn limitation on C. difficile colonization is unknown. To define C. difficile responses to Zn limitation, we performed RNA sequencing on C. difficile exposed to CP. In media with CP, C. difficile upregulated genes involved in metal homeostasis and amino acid metabolism. Overall design: Six total samples were analyzed; three samples were biological replicates of C. difficile grown in media alone and three samples were biological replicates of C. difficile grown in media containing recombinant calprotectin
Project description:Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is the major cause of healthcare antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. However, extra-intestinal manifestations of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) (including bacteremia and tissue infection) are extremely rare. We report a case of extraintestinal CDI after surgery. The isolate of C. difficile was not the PCR ribotype 027. However, this isolate produced toxins A and B. The patient underwent a follow-up examination 30 days after discharge, which showed complete recovery. This case report adds to existing knowledge of CDI.
Project description:Background:The epidemic Clostridioides difficile ribotype 027 strain resulted from the dissemination of 2 separate fluoroquinolone-resistant lineages: FQR1 and FQR2. Both lineages were reported to originate in North America; however, confirmatory large-scale investigations of C difficile ribotype 027 epidemiology using whole genome sequencing has not been undertaken in the United States. Methods:Whole genome sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on 76 clinical ribotype 027 isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Texas with C difficile infection and compared with 32 previously sequenced worldwide strains. Maximum-likelihood phylogeny based on a set of core genome SNPs was used to construct phylogenetic trees investigating strain macro- and microevolution. Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were used to incorporate temporal and geographic variables with the SNP strain analysis. Results:Whole genome sequence analysis identified 2841 SNPs including 900 nonsynonymous mutations, 1404 synonymous substitutions, and 537 intergenic changes. Phylogenetic analysis separated the strains into 2 prominent groups, which grossly differed by 28 SNPs: the FQR1 and FQR2 lineages. Five isolates were identified as pre-epidemic strains. Phylogeny demonstrated unique clustering and resistance genes in Texas strains indicating that spatiotemporal bias has defined the microevolution of ribotype 027 genetics. Conclusions:Clostridioides difficile ribotype 027 lineages emerged earlier than previously reported, coinciding with increased use of fluoroquinolones. Both FQR1 and FQR2 ribotype 027 epidemic lineages are present in Texas, but they have evolved geographically to represent region-specific public health threats.
Project description:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is increasing morbidity and mortality rates globally. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), an effective therapy for eliminating Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), cannot be used extensive due to a range of challenges. Probiotics thus constitutes a promising alternative therapy. In our study, we evaluated the effect of consortium of probiotics including five Lactobacilli strains and two Bifidobacterium strains on the colonization of toxigenic BI/NAP1/027 C. difficile in a mouse model. The results of 16S rRNA sequencing and targeted metabolomics showed the consortium of probiotics effectively decreased the colonization of C. difficile, changed the ?- and ?-diversity of the gut microbiota, decreased the primary bile acids, and increased the secondary bile acids. Spearman's correlation showed that some of the OTUs such as Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Blautia et al. were positively correlated with C. difficile numbers and the primary bile acids, and negatively correlated with the secondary bile acids. However, some of the OTUs, such as Butyricicoccus, Ruminococcus, and Rikenellaceae, were negatively correlated with C. difficile copies and the primary bile acids, and positively correlated with the secondary bile acids. In summary, the consortium of probiotics effectively decreases the colonization of C. difficile, probably via alteration of gut microbiota and bile acids. Our probiotics mixture thus offers a promising FMT alternative.
Project description:The nosocomial pathogen Clostridioides difficile is a spore-forming obligate anaerobe that depends on its aerotolerant spore form to transmit infections. Functional spore formation depends on the assembly of a proteinaceous layer known as the coat around the developing spore. In C. difficile, coat assembly depends on the conserved spore protein SpoIVA and the clostridial-organism-specific spore protein SipL, which directly interact. Mutations that disrupt their interaction cause the coat to mislocalize and impair spore formation. In Bacillus subtilis, SpoIVA is an ATPase that uses ATP hydrolysis to drive its polymerization around the forespore. Loss of SpoIVA ATPase activity impairs B. subtilis SpoIVA encasement of the forespore and activates a quality control mechanism that eliminates these defective cells. Since this mechanism is lacking in C. difficile, we tested whether mutations in the C. difficile SpoIVA ATPase motifs impact functional spore formation. Disrupting C. difficile SpoIVA ATPase motifs resulted in phenotypes that were typically >104-fold less severe than the equivalent mutations in B. subtilis Interestingly, mutation of ATPase motif residues predicted to abrogate SpoIVA binding to ATP decreased the SpoIVA-SipL interaction, whereas mutation of ATPase motif residues predicted to disrupt ATP hydrolysis but maintain ATP binding enhanced the SpoIVA-SipL interaction. When a sipL mutation known to reduce binding to SpoIVA was combined with a spoIVA mutation predicted to prevent SpoIVA binding to ATP, spore formation was severely exacerbated. Since this phenotype is allele specific, our data imply that SipL recognizes the ATP-bound form of SpoIVA and highlight the importance of this interaction for functional C. difficile spore formation.IMPORTANCE The major pathogen Clostridioides difficile depends on its spore form to transmit disease. However, the mechanism by which C. difficile assembles spores remains poorly characterized. We previously showed that binding between the spore morphogenetic proteins SpoIVA and SipL regulates assembly of the protective coat layer around the forespore. In this study, we determined that mutations in the C. difficile SpoIVA ATPase motifs result in relatively minor defects in spore formation, in contrast with Bacillus subtilis Nevertheless, our data suggest that SipL preferentially recognizes the ATP-bound form of SpoIVA and identify a specific residue in the SipL C-terminal LysM domain that is critical for recognizing the ATP-bound form of SpoIVA. These findings advance our understanding of how SpoIVA-SipL interactions regulate C. difficile spore assembly.
Project description:The Gram-positive enteropathogen Clostridioides difficile (Clostridium difficile) is the major cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea and is also an important cause of community-acquired infectious diarrhoea. Considering the burden of the disease, many studies have employed whole-genome sequencing of bacterial isolates to identify factors that contribute to virulence and pathogenesis. Though extrachromosomal elements (ECEs) such as plasmids are important for these processes in other bacteria, the few characterized plasmids of C. difficile have no relevant functions assigned and no systematic identification of plasmids has been carried out to date. Here, we perform an in silico analysis of publicly available sequence data to show that ~13?% of all C. difficile strains contain ECEs, with 1-6 elements per strain. Our approach identifies known plasmids (e.g. pCD6, pCD630 and cloning plasmids) and six novel putative plasmid families. Our study shows that plasmids are abundant and may encode functions that are relevant for C. difficile physiology. The newly identified plasmids may also form the basis for the construction of novel cloning plasmids for C. difficile that are compatible with existing tools.
Project description:To trace the routes and frequencies of transmission of Clostridioides difficile in a tertiary-care hospital in Madrid (Spain), we sequenced the genomes from all C. difficile isolates collected over 36 months (2014-2016) that were indistinguishable from any other isolate by PCR ribotyping. From a total of 589 C. difficile infection cases, we cultivated and PCR-ribotyped 367 C. difficile isolates (62%), of which 265 were genome-sequenced. Based on close relatedness of successively collected isolates (?2 SNPs difference in their genomes), whole-genome sequencing revealed a total of 17 independent, putative transmission clusters, caused by various C. difficile strains and each containing 2 to 18 cases, none of which had been detected previously by standard epidemiological surveillance. Proportions of linked isolates varied widely among PCR ribotypes, from 3% (1/36) for ribotype 014/020 to 60% (12/20) for ribotype 027, suggesting differential aptitudes for nosocomial spread. Remarkably, only a minority (17%) of transmission recipients had direct ward contact to their presumed donors and specific C. difficile genome types frequently went undetectable for several months before re-emerging later, suggesting reservoirs for the pathogen outside of symptomatic patients. Taken together, our analysis based on genome sequencing suggested considerable within-hospital epidemic spread of C. difficile, even though epidemiological data initially had been inconspicuous.
Project description:Thirty <i>Clostridioides difficile</i> isolates collected in 2016 through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program were selected for reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing. Here, we present the genetic characteristics of these isolates and announce their availability in the CDC & FDA Antibiotic Resistance Isolate Bank.