Project description:The sequencing and bioinformatics analyses of isolates Cr150, Cr170, and Cr611 from powdered infant formula indicate that the three strains represent new members in the Cronobacter muytjensii, Cronobacter turicensis, and Cronobacter sakazakii groups, respectively.
Project description:Cronobacter (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) is a recently defined genus consisting of six species, C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. dublinensis, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis, and Cronobacter genomospecies 1. In this study, MboII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of O-antigen gene clusters, located between galF and gnd, were used to identify serotypes in Cronobacter spp. Seven O-antigen RFLP clusters were generated, including three C. sakazakii clusters, previously identified as serotypes O1, O2, and O3. The O-antigen regions of six strains with unique RFLP patterns, including two C. sakazakii strains, two C. malonaticus strains, one C. turicensis strain, and one C. muytjensii strain, revealed three O-antigen gene clusters shared among Cronobacter species. PCR assays were developed, targeting the wzx O-antigen polymerase gene, and used to screen 231 Cronobacter strains to determine the frequency of these newly identified serotypes.
Project description:Cronobacter spp. are emerging pathogens that cause severe infantile meningitis, septicemia, or necrotizing enterocolitis. Contaminated powdered infant formula has been implicated as the source of Cronobacter spp. in most cases, but questions still remain regarding the natural habitat and virulence potential for each strain. The iron acquisition systems in 231 Cronobacter strains isolated from different sources were identified and characterized. All Cronobacter spp. have both the Feo and Efe systems for acquisition of ferrous iron, and all plasmid-harboring strains (98%) have the aerobactin-like siderophore, cronobactin, for transport of ferric iron. All Cronobacter spp. have the genes encoding an enterobactin-like siderophore, although it was not functional under the conditions tested. Furthermore, all Cronobacter spp. have genes encoding five receptors for heterologous siderophores. A ferric dicitrate transport system (fec system) is encoded specifically by a subset of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus strains, of which a high percentage were isolated from clinical samples. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the fec system is most closely related to orthologous genes present in human-pathogenic bacterial strains. Moreover, all strains of C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii encode two receptors, FcuA and Fct, for heterologous siderophores produced by plant pathogens. Identification of putative Fur boxes and expression of the genes under iron-depleted conditions revealed which genes and operons are components of the Fur regulon. Taken together, these results support the proposition that C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus may be more associated with the human host and C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii with plants.
Project description:Salinity stress is a major challenge to agricultural productivity and global food security in light of a dramatic increase of human population and climate change. Plant growth promoting bacteria can be used as an additional solution to traditional crop breeding and genetic engineering. In the present work, the induction of plant salt tolerance by the desert plant endophyte <i>Cronobacter</i> sp. JZ38 was examined on the model plant <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> using different inoculation methods. JZ38 promoted plant growth under salinity stress via contact and emission of volatile compounds. Based on the 16S rRNA and whole genome phylogenetic analysis, fatty acid analysis and phenotypic identification, JZ38 was identified as <i>Cronobacter muytjensii</i> and clearly separated and differentiated from the pathogenic <i>C. sakazakii</i>. Full genome sequencing showed that JZ38 is composed of one chromosome and two plasmids. Bioinformatic analysis and bioassays revealed that JZ38 can grow under a range of abiotic stresses. JZ38 interaction with plants is correlated with an extensive set of genes involved in chemotaxis and motility. The presence of genes for plant nutrient acquisition and phytohormone production could explain the ability of JZ38 to colonize plants and sustain plant growth under stress conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles produced by JZ38 revealed the emission of indole and different sulfur volatile compounds that may play a role in contactless plant growth promotion and antagonistic activity against pathogenic microbes. Indeed, JZ38 was able to inhibit the growth of two strains of the phytopathogenic oomycete <i>Phytophthora infestans</i> via volatile emission. Genetic, transcriptomic and metabolomics analyses, combined with more <i>in vitro</i> assays will provide a better understanding the highlighted genes' involvement in JZ38's functional potential and its interaction with plants. Nevertheless, these results provide insight into the bioactivity of <i>C. muytjensii</i> JZ38 as a multi-stress tolerance promoting bacterium with a potential use in agriculture.
Project description:The genus Cronobacter (formerly called Enterobacter sakazakii) is composed of five species; C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. muytjensii, and C. dublinensis. The genus includes opportunistic human pathogens, and the first three species have been associated with neonatal infections. The most severe diseases are caused in neonates and include fatal necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis. The genetic basis of the diversity within the genus is unknown, and few virulence traits have been identified. We report here the first sequence of a member of this genus, C. sakazakii strain BAA-894. The genome of Cronobacter sakazakii strain BAA-894 comprises a 4.4 Mb chromosome (57% GC content) and two plasmids; 31 Kb (51% GC) and 131 Kb (56% GC). The genome was used to construct a 385,000 probe oligonucleotide tiling DNA microarray covering the whole genome. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was undertaken on five other C. sakazakii strains, and representatives of the four other Cronobacter species. Among 4,382 annotated genes inspected in this study, about 55% of genes were common to all C. sakazakii strains and 43% were common to all Cronobacter strains, with 10 - 17% absence of genes. CGH highlighted 15 clusters of genes in C. sakazakii BAA-894 that were divergent or absent in more than half of the tested strains; six of these are of probable prophage origin. Putative virulence factors were identified in these prophage and in other variable regions. A number of genes unique to Cronobacter species associated with neonatal infections (C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus and C. turicensis) were identified. These included a copper and silver resistance system known to be linked to invasion of the blood-brain barrier by neonatal meningitic strains of Escherichia coli. In addition, genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps and adhesins were identified that were unique to C. sakazakii strains from outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units. Comparative genomic hybridization highlighted 15 clusters of genes in C. sakazakii BAA-894 that were divergent or absent in more than half of the tested strains; six of these are of probable prophage origin. Putative virulence factors were identified in these prophage and in other variable regions. A number of genes unique to Cronobacter species associated with neonatal infections (C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus and C. turicensis) were identified. These included a copper and silver resistance system known to be linked to invasion of the blood-brain barrier by neonatal meningitic strains of Escherichia coli. In addition, genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps and adhesins were identified that were unique to C. sakazakii strains from outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units. Ten Cronobacter samples were analyzed, including total genomic DNA of six C. sakazakii strains, one C. malonaticus strain, one C. muytjensii strain, one C. dublinensis strain and one C. turicensis strain.
Project description:Cronobacter (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii) is a diverse bacterial genus consisting of seven species: C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. universalis, C. muytjensii, C. dublinensis, and C. condimenti. In this study, we have used a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach employing the alleles of 7 genes (atpD, fusA, glnS, gltB, gyrB, infB, and ppsA; total length, 3,036 bp) to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of 325 Cronobacter species isolates. Strains were chosen on the basis of their species, geographic and temporal distribution, source, and clinical outcome. The earliest strain was isolated from milk powder in 1950, and the earliest clinical strain was isolated in 1953. The existence of seven species was supported by MLST. Intraspecific variation ranged from low diversity in C. sakazakii to extensive diversity within some species, such as C. muytjensii and C. dublinensis, including evidence of gene conversion between species. The predominant species from clinical sources was found to be C. sakazakii. C. sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST4) was the predominant sequence type of cerebral spinal fluid isolates from cases of meningitis.