Project description:Histone 3 lysine 4 and histone 3 lysine 9 methylation in wild type and ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The purpose of the chromatin immunoprecipitation/microarray (ChIP/chip) experiment is to determine which regions of a genome are enriched for a particular histone modification in a single Arabidopsis thanliana genotype. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against dimethyl histone-H3 lysine-9 (H3mK9) or dimethyl histone-H3 lysine-4 (H3mK4) is performed on a selected genotype. This purified DNA from each immunoprecipiation (mH3K9, mH3K4, no antibody control) is used for random amplification to increase the quantity of DNA for microarray hybridization. The amplified DNA from each experimental sample is then labeled with Cy5 and hybridized against total input DNA from the corresponding genotype, labeled in Cy3. In a single hybridization, the total input DNA serves as a baseline and is compared to the immunoprecipitated samples. Ratios of normalized signal intensities were calculated to identify enrichment of a particular sequence after immunoprecipitation, in comparison to the total input DNA. Dye swap analysis is carried out to take account of experimental variation by repeating the hybridization with identical samples labeled with Cy3 and Cy5, respectively. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE1333: EV49+50, Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1334: Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation in ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1335: EV104+105, Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation in ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1336: Ev106+107, Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation in WT Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1337: EV51+52, Histone 3 Lysine 9 methylation in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1338: EV59+60, Histone 3 Lysine 9 methylation in ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1339: Histone 3 Lysine 9 methylation in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1340: EV110+111, Histone 3 Lysine 9 methylation in ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings Refer to individual Series
Project description:Plants must continuously react to the ever-fluctuating nature of their environment. Repeated exposure to stressful conditions can lead to priming, whereby prior encounters heighten a plant’s ability to respond to future events. A clear example of priming is provided by the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), in which photosynthetic and photoprotective responses are enhanced following recurring light stress. While there are various post-translational mechanisms underpinning photoprotection, an unresolved question is the relative importance of transcriptional changes towards stress priming and, consequently, the potential contribution from DNA methylation – a heritable chemical modification of DNA capable of influencing gene expression. Here, we systematically investigate the potential molecular underpinnings of physiological priming against recurring excess light (EL), specifically DNA methylation and transcriptional regulation: the latter having not been examined with respect to EL priming. The capacity for physiological priming of photosynthetic and photoprotective parameters following a recurring EL treatment was not impaired in Arabidopsis mutants with perturbed establishment, maintenance and removal of DNA methylation, nor was the transmission of this priming into naive tissues developed in the absence of excess light. Importantly, no differences in developmental or basal photoprotective capacity were identified in the mutants that may confound the above result. Little evidence for a causal transcriptional component of physiological priming was identified; in fact, most alterations in primed plants presented as a transcriptional ‘dampening’ in response to an additional EL exposure, likely a consequential of physiological priming. However, a set of transcripts uniquely regulated in primed plants provide preliminary evidence for a novel transcriptional component of recurring EL priming, independent of physiological changes. Thus, we propose that physiological priming of recurring EL in Arabidopsis occurs independently of DNA methylation; and that the majority of the associated transcriptional alterations are a consequence, not cause, of this physiological priming. Overall design: Experiments were performed using recurring excess-light treatments on Arabidopsis thaliana. MethylC-seq was performed on 3 replicates of unstressed Col-0 and strs2 plants. RNA-seq was performed on 3 replicates of naïve, naïve-triggered, primed, and primed-triggered plants.
Project description:DNA methylation in wild type bolting plants, wild type seedlings, and ddm1 seedlings. The purpose of the McrBC methylation microarray assay is to determine which regions of a genome are methylated versus those that are unmethylated in a single Arabidopsis thanliana genotype. McrBC is a methylation-sensitive enzyme that restricts DNA only at purine-Cmethyl half sites when separated between 50bp and 3kb. A designated amount of DNA from a particular genotype is sheared to a size range of 1kb-10kb using nebulization. We restrict half of the nebulized DNA with McrBC, and the methylated fraction is then removed from the unmethylated fraction through gel purification of DNA fragments greater than 1kb.* The remaining nebulized DNA is subjected to the same gel purification scheme, but with no McrBC treatment. In a single hybridization, the untreated sample is labeled with Cy5 and the McrBC-treated sample with Cy3. Thus, after labeling and microarray hybridization, the ratio of normalized Cy5 to normalized Cy3 represents the relative methylation at the sequence represented by the spot on the microarray. Dye swap analysis is carried out to take account of experimental variation by repeating the hybridization with identical samples labeled with Cy3 and Cy5, respectively. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE1329: DNA methylation in wild-type bolting Arabidopsis thaliana plants GSE1330: DNA methylation in ddm1 seedling Arabidopsis thaliana plants GSE1331: VC133+137, DNA methylation in ddm1 seedling Arabidopsis thaliana plants GSE1332: VC134+136, DNA methylation in wild-type seedling Arabidopsis thaliana plants Refer to individual Series
Project description:Nucleosomes compact and regulate access to DNA in the nucleus, and are composed of approximately 147 bases of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer. Here we report a genome-wide nucleosome positioning analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana utilizing massively parallel sequencing of mononucleosomes. By combining this data with profiles of DNA methylation at single base resolution, we identified ten base periodicities in the DNA methylation status of nucleosome-bound DNA and found that nucleosomal DNA was more highly methylated than flanking DNA. These results suggest that nucleosome positioning strongly influences DNA methylation patterning throughout the genome and that DNA methyltransferases preferentially target nucleosome-bound DNA. We also observed similar trends in human nucleosomal DNA suggesting that the relationships between nucleosomes and DNA methyltransferases are conserved. Finally, as has been observed in animals, nucleosomes were highly enriched on exons, and preferentially positioned at intron-exon and exon-intron boundaries. RNA Pol II was also enriched on exons relative to introns, consistent with the hypothesis that nucleosome positioning regulates Pol II processivity. We also found that DNA methylation enriched on exons, consistent with the targeting of DNA methylation to nucleosomes. Genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana was MNase digested, size selected and sequenced. Genomic DNA associated with H3 was isolated using ChIP and sequenced. Genomic DNA from human HSF1 embryonic stem cells was bisulfite converted and sequenced.
Project description:DNA methylation is involved in many biological processes during plant growth and development. Here, we report a novel annual growth rhythm that is found in cotton plants grown in different time-of-year. To further study this rhythm in other plants, we use Arabidopsis thaliana for genome-wide bisulfite sequencing. Two A. thaliana DNA samples were extracted from 20 days old whole plant in Feburary and August for bisulphite treatment and further Illumina sequencing.
Project description:We investigated DNA methylation variation in Swedish Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. We found that methylation of transposable elements is temperature sensitive and associated with genetic polymorphism in both cis and trans, whereas gene body methylation is associated with genetic polymorphism in trans. Additionally, complementary RNA-Seq data for the Arabidopsis accessions were used to correlate methylation changes with gene expression across environments. mRNA-sequencing (mRNA-Seq) of 160 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown at 10 C and 163 grown at 16 C. The source tissue for RNA collection was whole rosette at the 9-leaf stage.
Project description:mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and bolting plants. Features found to be significantly enriched for DNA methylation were determined. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE1324: EV23+24 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1/+ backcross bolting Arabidopsis thaliana plants GSE1325: EV33+34 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1326: VC109+111 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1327: EV39+40 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1328: VC110+112 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 bolting Arabidopsis thaliana plants Refer to individual Series
Project description:The Arabidopsis thaliana central cell, the companion cell of the egg, undergoes DNA demethylation prior to fertilization, but the targeting preferences and biological significance of this process remain unclear. Here, we show that active DNA demethylation mediated by the DEMETER DNA glycosylase accounts for all of the demethylation in the central cell, and preferentially targets small, AT-rich and nucleosome-depleted transposable elements. The vegetative cell, the companion cell of sperm, also undergoes DEMETER-dependent demethylation of similar sequences, and lack of DEMETER in vegetative cells causes reduced small RNA-directed DNA methylation of transposons in sperm. Our results demonstrate that demethylation in companion cells reinforces transposon methylation in plant gametes, thereby assuring stable silencing of transposable elements across generations Examination of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis endosperm, embryo, and pollen