Project description:Histone 3 lysine 4 and histone 3 lysine 9 methylation in wild type and ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The purpose of the chromatin immunoprecipitation/microarray (ChIP/chip) experiment is to determine which regions of a genome are enriched for a particular histone modification in a single Arabidopsis thanliana genotype. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against dimethyl histone-H3 lysine-9 (H3mK9) or dimethyl histone-H3 lysine-4 (H3mK4) is performed on a selected genotype. This purified DNA from each immunoprecipiation (mH3K9, mH3K4, no antibody control) is used for random amplification to increase the quantity of DNA for microarray hybridization. The amplified DNA from each experimental sample is then labeled with Cy5 and hybridized against total input DNA from the corresponding genotype, labeled in Cy3. In a single hybridization, the total input DNA serves as a baseline and is compared to the immunoprecipitated samples. Ratios of normalized signal intensities were calculated to identify enrichment of a particular sequence after immunoprecipitation, in comparison to the total input DNA. Dye swap analysis is carried out to take account of experimental variation by repeating the hybridization with identical samples labeled with Cy3 and Cy5, respectively. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE1333: EV49+50, Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1334: Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation in ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1335: EV104+105, Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation in ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1336: Ev106+107, Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation in WT Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1337: EV51+52, Histone 3 Lysine 9 methylation in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1338: EV59+60, Histone 3 Lysine 9 methylation in ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1339: Histone 3 Lysine 9 methylation in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1340: EV110+111, Histone 3 Lysine 9 methylation in ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings Refer to individual Series
Project description:mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and bolting plants. Features found to be significantly enriched for DNA methylation were determined. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE1324: EV23+24 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1/+ backcross bolting Arabidopsis thaliana plants GSE1325: EV33+34 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1326: VC109+111 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1327: EV39+40 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings GSE1328: VC110+112 mRNA levels in Wild-type versus ddm1 bolting Arabidopsis thaliana plants Refer to individual Series
Project description:DNA methylation in wild type bolting plants, wild type seedlings, and ddm1 seedlings. The purpose of the McrBC methylation microarray assay is to determine which regions of a genome are methylated versus those that are unmethylated in a single Arabidopsis thanliana genotype. McrBC is a methylation-sensitive enzyme that restricts DNA only at purine-Cmethyl half sites when separated between 50bp and 3kb. A designated amount of DNA from a particular genotype is sheared to a size range of 1kb-10kb using nebulization. We restrict half of the nebulized DNA with McrBC, and the methylated fraction is then removed from the unmethylated fraction through gel purification of DNA fragments greater than 1kb.* The remaining nebulized DNA is subjected to the same gel purification scheme, but with no McrBC treatment. In a single hybridization, the untreated sample is labeled with Cy5 and the McrBC-treated sample with Cy3. Thus, after labeling and microarray hybridization, the ratio of normalized Cy5 to normalized Cy3 represents the relative methylation at the sequence represented by the spot on the microarray. Dye swap analysis is carried out to take account of experimental variation by repeating the hybridization with identical samples labeled with Cy3 and Cy5, respectively. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE1329: DNA methylation in wild-type bolting Arabidopsis thaliana plants GSE1330: DNA methylation in ddm1 seedling Arabidopsis thaliana plants GSE1331: VC133+137, DNA methylation in ddm1 seedling Arabidopsis thaliana plants GSE1332: VC134+136, DNA methylation in wild-type seedling Arabidopsis thaliana plants Refer to individual Series
Project description:The diversity of small RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) mechanisms have been underestimated due to the nearly complete transcriptional silencing of transposable elements (TEs) in the wild-type reference strains of Arabidopsis thaliana. In plants mutant for the SWI/SNF histone remodeler DDM1, TEs are globally activated due to loss of genome wide heterochromatin condensation. Transcriptionally activated TEs go through additional non-canonical forms of RdDM that are dependent on RNA Polymerase II expression. However, the global targets of the non-canonical RdDM pathway have not been explored. In an attempt to identify and contrast the targets of canonical and expression-dependent non-canonical RdDM, we performed MethylC-seq of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns from several RdDM mutants in either the TE-silent or the TE-active (ddm1) contexts. Arabidopsis wildtype and twenty RdDM pathway mutants
Project description:Eukaryotic DNA is wrapped around histone octamers to form nucleosomes, which are separated by linker DNA bound by histone H1. In many species, the DNA exhibits methylation of CG dinucleotides, which is epigenetically inherited via a semiconservative mechanism. How methyltransferases access DNA within nucleosomes remains mysterious. Here we show that methylation of nucleosomes requires DDM1/Lsh nucleosome remodelers in Arabidopsis thaliana and mouse. We also show that removal of histone H1, which partially restores methylation in ddm1 mutants, does so primarily in the linker DNA between nucleosomes. In h1ddm1 compound mutants, substantial portions of the genome exhibit dramatically periodic methylation that approaches wild-type levels in linker DNA but is virtually absent in nucleosomes. We also present evidence that de novo methylation supplements semiconservative maintenance of CG methylation across generations. Overall, our results demonstrate that nucleosomes and H1 are barriers to DNA methylation, which are overcome by DDM1/Lsh nucleosome remodelers. Overall design: Bisulfite sequencing to determine single-base DNA methylation: 4 different genotypes from F4 generation, without replicates; MNase sequencing to identify nucleosome positions genomewide: single generation in leaf tissue for 4 different genotypes, 2 or 3 biological replicates; RNA-seq to define expression deciles in wild-type: single generation in leaf tissue for WT, 2 replicates.