Project description:SILAC based protein correlation profiling using size exclusion of protein complexes derived from seven Mus musculus tissues (Heart, Brain, Liver, Lung, Kidney, Skeletal Muscle, Thymus)
Project description:We analyzed the functional role of DOR (Diabetes and Obesity Regulated gene) (also named Tp53inp2) in skeletal muscle. We show that DOR has a direct impact on skeletal muscle mass in vivo. Thus, using different transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that while muscle-specific DOR gain-of-function results in reduced muscle mass, loss-of-function causes muscle hypertrophy. DOR has been described as a protein with two different functions, i.e., a nuclear coactivator and an autophagy regulator (Baumgartner et. al., PLoS One, 2007; Francis et. al., Curr Biol, 2010; Mauvezin et. al., EMBO Rep, 2010; Nowak et. al., Mol Biol Cell, 2009). This is why we decided to analyze which of these two functions could explain the phenotype observed in our mice models. In this regard, we performed a transcriptomic analysis using microarrays looking for genes differentially expressed in the quadriceps muscle of WT and SKM-Tg mice as well as in C and SKM-KO animals. Surprisingly, only a reduced number of genes were dysregulated upon DOR manipulation and most of the genes underwent mild changes in expression. These data strongly suggest that DOR does not operate as a nuclear co-factor in mouse skeletal muscle under the conditions subjected to study. In contrast, DOR enhances basal autophagy in skeletal muscle and promotes muscle wasting when autophagy is a contributor to muscle loss. To determine the functional role of DOR in skeletal muscle, we generated transgenic mice (SKM-Tg) overexpressing DOR specifically in skeletal muscle under the Myosin-Light Chain 1 promoter/enhancer. The open reading frame of DOR was introduced in an EcoRI site in the MDAF2 vector, which contains a 1.5 kb fragment of the MLC1 promoter and 0.9 kb fragment of the MLC1/3 gene containing a 3' muscle enhancer element (Rosenthal et. al., PNAS, 1989; Otaegui et. al., FASEB J, 2003). The fragment obtained after the digestion of this construct with BssHII was the one used to generate both transgenic mouse lines. Nontransgenic littermates were used as controls for the transgenic animals (Wt). In addition, a muscle-specific DOR knock-out mouse line (SKM-KO) was also generated by crossing homozygous DOR loxP/loxP mice with a mouse strain expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Myosin-Light Chain 1 promoter (Bothe et. al., Genesis, 2000). Deletion of exons 3 and 4 driven by Cre recombinase caused the ablation of DOR expression. Non-expressing Cre DOR loxP/loxP littermates were used as controls for knockout animals (C). Four-month-old male mice were used in all experiments. Mice were in a C57BL/6J pure genetic background. We used microarrays to analyze the effect of DOR gain-of-function and DOR ablation on skeletal muscle gene expression Total RNA from quadriceps muscles from 4-month-old male mice was extracted and used for hibridization on Affimetrix microarrays
Project description:Here we report the expansion of the genetic code of Mus musculus with various unnatural amino acids including N?-acetyl-lysine. Stable integration of transgenes encoding an engineered N?-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS)/tRNAPyl pair into the mouse genome enables site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into a target protein in response to the amber codon. We demonstrate temporal and spatial control of protein acetylation in various organs of the transgenic mouse using a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) as a model protein. This strategy will provide a powerful tool for systematic in vivo study of cellular proteins in the most commonly used mammalian model organism for human physiology and disease.
Project description:Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids (FA) and provide substrates for virtually every metabolic pathway that catabolizes FA or synthesizes complex lipids. We have hypothesized that each of the five cloned ACSL isoforms partitions FA towards specific downstream pathways. Adult heart expresses all five cloned ACSL isoforms, but their independent functional roles have not been elucidated. Studies implicate ACSL1 in both oxidative and lipid synthetic pathways. To clarify the functional role of ACSL1 and the other ACSL isoforms (3-6), we examined ACS specific activity and Acsl mRNA expression in the developing mouse heart which increases FA oxidative pathways for energy production after birth. Compared to the embryonic heart, ACS specific activity was 14-fold higher on post-natal day 1 (P1). On P1, as compared to the fetus, only Acsl1 mRNA increased, whereas transcripts for the other Acsl isoforms remained the same, suggesting that ACSL1 is the major isoform responsible for activating long-chain FA for myocardial oxidation after birth. In contrast, the mRNA abundance of Acsl3 was highest on E16, and decreased dramatically by P7, suggesting that ACSL3 may play a critical role during the development of the fetal heart. Our data support the hypothesis that each ACSL has a specific role in the channeling of FA towards distinct metabolic fates.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons make up a large fraction of the typical mammalian genome. They comprise about 8% of the human genome and approximately 10% of the mouse genome. On account of their abundance, LTR retrotransposons are believed to hold major significance for genome structure and function. Recent advances in genome sequencing of a variety of model organisms has provided an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate better the diversity of LTR retrotransposons resident in eukaryotic genomes. RESULTS: Using a new data-mining program, LTR_STRUC, in conjunction with conventional techniques, we have mined the GenBank mouse (Mus musculus) database and the more complete Ensembl mouse dataset for LTR retrotransposons. We report here that the M. musculus genome contains at least 21 separate families of LTR retrotransposons; 13 of these families are described here for the first time. CONCLUSIONS: All families of mouse LTR retrotransposons are members of the gypsy-like superfamily of retroviral-like elements. Several different families of unrelated non-autonomous elements were identified, suggesting that the evolution of non-autonomy may be a common event. High sequence similarity between several LTR retrotransposons identified in this study and those found in distantly-related species suggests that horizontal transfer has been a significant factor in the evolution of mouse LTR retrotransposons.
Project description:Copy number variation is an important dimension of genetic diversity and has implications in development and disease. As an important model organism, the mouse is a prime candidate for copy number variant (CNV) characterization, but this has yet to be completed for a large sample size. Here we report CNV analysis of publicly available, high-density microarray data files for 351 mouse tail samples, including 290 mice that had not been characterized for CNVs previously.We found 9634 putative autosomal CNVs across the samples affecting 6.87% of the mouse reference genome. We find significant differences in the degree of CNV uniqueness (single sample occurrence) and the nature of CNV-gene overlap between wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains. CNV-gene overlap was associated with lipid metabolism, pheromone response and olfaction compared to immunity, carbohydrate metabolism and amino-acid metabolism for wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains, respectively. Using two subspecies of wild-caught Mus musculus, we identified putative CNVs unique to those subspecies and show this diversity is better captured by wild-derived laboratory strains than by the classical laboratory strains. A total of 9 genic copy number variable regions (CNVRs) were selected for experimental confirmation by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).The analysis we present is a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of CNVs in Mus musculus, which increases the number of known variants in the species and will accelerate the identification of novel variants in future studies.
Project description:The dataset contains 72 RNA-seq samples obtained from adult (P150) C57BL/6JCrl mice. Samples are from total heart, liver and kidney tissue. Four different genotypes are included in the data: 1) wild type, 2) transgenic Ciona intestinalis AOX in Rosa26 locus (Szibor et al. 2017, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.027839), 3) respiratory chain complex III deficient Bcs1lp.S78G knock-in mice (a GRACILE syndrome patient mutation, Leveen et al. 2011, DOI: 10.1002/hep.24031) and 4) a cross between the AOX transgenic and Bcs1lp.S78G mice (Rajendran et al. EMBO Mol Med. In press).
Project description:The mammalian vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses two G-protein coupled receptor gene families that mediate pheromone responses, the V1R and V2R receptor genes. In rodents, there are ~150 V1R genes comprising 12 subfamilies organized in gene clusters at multiple chromosomal locations. Previously, we showed that several of these subfamilies had been extensively modulated by gene duplications, deletions, and gene conversions around the time of the evolutionary split of the mouse and rat lineages, consistent with the hypothesis that V1R repertoires might be involved in reinforcing speciation events. Here, we generated genome sequence for one large cluster containing two V1R subfamilies in Mus spretus, a closely related and sympatric species to Mus musculus, and investigated evolutionary change in these repertoires along the two mouse lineages.We describe a comparison of spretus and musculus with respect to genome organization and synteny, as well as V1R gene content and phylogeny, with reference to previous observations made between mouse and rat. Unlike the mouse-rat comparisons, synteny seems to be largely conserved between the two mouse species. Disruption of local synteny is generally associated with differences in repeat content, although these differences appear to arise more from deletion than new integrations. Even though unambiguous V1R orthology is evident, we observe dynamic modulation of the functional repertoires, with two of seven V1Rb and one of eleven V1Ra genes lost in spretus, two V1Ra genes becoming pseudogenes in musculus, two additional orthologous pairs apparently subject to strong adaptive selection, and another divergent orthologous pair that apparently was subjected to gene conversion.Therefore, eight of the 18 (~44%) presumptive V1Ra/V1Rb genes in the musculus-spretus ancestor appear to have undergone functional modulation since these two species diverged. As compared to the rat-mouse split, where modulation is evident by independent expansions of these two V1R subfamilies, divergence between musculus and spretus has arisen more by mutations within coding sequences. These results support the hypothesis that adaptive changes in functional V1R repertoires contribute to the delineation of very closely related species.