Project description:Smad7 is a member of the TGF-B superfamily that plays a signigicant role in fate determination of hematopoietic stem cells. This experiment compares expression between megakaryotic and fibroblast cell lines that have been transduced with either Smad7 recombinant retroviral vector or retroviral vector alone. Keywords: other Overall design: this experiment include 4 samples and 30 replicates
Project description:The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Maternally Expressed Gene 3 (Meg3) is encoded within the imprinted Dlk1-Meg3 gene locus and is only maternally expressed. Meg3 has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and functions as a tumor suppressor in numerous tissues. Meg3 is highly expressed in mouse adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and strongly down-regulated in early progenitors. To address its functional role in HSCs, we used MxCre to conditionally delete Meg3 in the adult bone marrow of Meg3mat-flox/pat-wt mice. We performed extensive in vitro and in vivo analyses of mice carrying a Meg3 deficient blood system, but neither observed impaired hematopoiesis during homeostatic conditions nor upon serial transplantation. Furthermore, we analyzed VavCre Meg3mat-flox/pat-wt mice, in which Meg3 was deleted in the embryonic hematopoietic system and unexpectedly this did neither generate any hematopoietic defects. In response to interferon-mediated stimulation, Meg3 deficient adult HSCs responded highly similar compared to controls. Taken together, we report the finding, that the highly expressed imprinted lncRNA Meg3 is dispensable for the function of HSCs during homeostasis and in response to stress mediators as well as for serial reconstitution of the blood system in vivo.
Project description:A precise balance between quiescence and proliferation is crucial for the lifelong function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Cyclins E1 and E2 regulate exit from quiescence in fibroblasts, but their role in HSCs remains unknown. Here, we report a non-redundant role for cyclin E1 in mouse HSCs. A long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay indicated that the loss of cyclin E1, but not E2, compromised the colony-forming activity of primitive hematopoietic progenitors. Ccne1(-/-) mice showed normal hematopoiesis in vivo under homeostatic conditions but a severe impairment following myeloablative stress induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Under these conditions, Ccne1(-/-) HSCs were less efficient in entering the cell cycle, resulting in decreased hematopoiesis and reduced survival of mutant mice upon weekly 5-FU treatment. The role of cyclin E1 in homeostatic conditions became apparent in aged mice, where HSC quiescence was increased in Ccne1(-/-) animals. On the other hand, loss of cyclin E1 provided HSCs with a competitive advantage in bone marrow serial transplantation assays, suggesting that a partial impairment of cell cycle entry may exert a protective role by preventing premature depletion of the HSC compartment. Our data support a role for cyclin E1 in controlling the exit from quiescence in HSCs. This activity, depending on the physiological context, can either jeopardize or protect the maintenance of hematopoiesis.
Project description:The bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) protein family member BRD4 is a transcriptional regulator, critical for cell cycle progression and cellular viability. Here, we show that BRD4 plays an important role in embryonic stem cell (ESC) regulation. During differentiation of ESCs, BRD4 expression is upregulated and its gene promoter becomes demethylated. Disruption of BRD4 expression in ESCs did not induce spontaneous differentiation but severely diminished hematoendothelial potential. Although BRD4 regulates c-Myc expression, our data show that the role of BRD4 in hematopoietic commitment is not exclusively mediated by c-Myc. Our results indicate that BRD4 is epigenetically regulated during hematopoietic differentiation ESCs in the context of a still unknown signaling pathway.
Project description:Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) generate blood and immune cells through a hierarchical process of differentiation. Genes that regulate this process are of great interest for understanding normal and also malignant hematopoiesis. Surprisingly, however, very little is known about long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in HSCs. Neat1 is a lncRNA that plays a major role in the formation of sub-nuclear structures called paraspeckles, and was reported to regulate proliferation and differentiation in other cells types. We detected Neat1 expression using RNA-seq data and RT-qPCR in HSCs, progenitors and effector immune cells, by specific detection of its isoforms. Neat1 is highly expressed in stem and progenitor cells, yet it shows significant reduction in granulocytes. Microscopically, Neat1 is detected as sharp nuclear foci. Paraspeckle proteins NONO and PSPC1 are detected as aggregated nuclear foci in fresh primary hematopoietic cells, and in cultured cells. Induction of differentiation in vitro was found to enhance Neat1 expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time the expression of Neat1 and paraspeckles formation in HSCs and along hematopoiesis.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that endothelial cells are a critical component of the normal hematopoietic microenvironment. Therefore, we sought to determine whether primary endothelial cells have the capacity to repair damaged hematopoietic stem cells. Highly purified populations of primary CD31(+) microvascular endothelial cells isolated from the brain or lung did not express the pan hematopoietic marker CD45, most hematopoietic lineage markers, or the progenitor marker c-kit and did not give rise to hematopoietic cells in vitro or in vivo. Remarkably, the transplantation of small numbers of these microvascular endothelial cells consistently restored hematopoiesis following bone marrow lethal doses of irradiation. Analysis of the peripheral blood of rescued recipients demonstrated that both short-term and long-term multilineage hematopoietic reconstitution was exclusively of host origin. Secondary transplantation studies revealed that microvascular endothelial cell-mediated hematopoietic regeneration also occurs at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic role for microvascular endothelial cells in the self-renewal and repair of adult hematopoietic stem cells.
Project description:Despite two decades of studies documenting the in vitro blood-forming potential of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs), achieving stable long-term blood engraftment of ESC-derived hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated mice has proven difficult. We have exploited the Cdx-Hox pathway, a genetic program important for blood development, to enhance the differentiation of ESCs along the hematopoietic lineage. Using an embryonic stem cell line engineered with tetracycline-inducible Cdx4, we demonstrate that ectopic Cdx4 expression promotes hematopoietic mesoderm specification, increases hematopoietic progenitor formation, and, together with HoxB4, enhances multilineage hematopoietic engraftment of lethally irradiated adult mice. Clonal analysis of retroviral integration sites confirms a common stem cell origin of lymphoid and myeloid populations in engrafted primary and secondary mice. These data document the cardinal stem cell features of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation of ESC-derived hematopoietic stem cells.
Project description:Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (Shp2), encoded by Ptpn11, is a member of the nonreceptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase family, and functions in cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation in many tissues. Here we report that loss of Ptpn11 in murine hematopoietic cells leads to bone marrow aplasia and lethality. Mutant mice show rapid loss of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and immature progenitors of all hematopoietic lineages in a gene dosage-dependent and cell-autonomous manner. Ptpn11-deficient HSCs and progenitors undergo apoptosis concomitant with increased Noxa expression. Mutant HSCs/progenitors also show defective Erk and Akt activation in response to stem cell factor and diminished thrombopoietin-evoked Erk activation. Activated Kras alleviates the Ptpn11 requirement for colony formation by progenitors and cytokine/growth factor responsiveness of HSCs, indicating that Ras is functionally downstream of Shp2 in these cells. Thus, Shp2 plays a critical role in controlling the survival and maintenance of HSCs and immature progenitors in vivo.
Project description:It has recently been shown that mononuclear cells from murine skeletal muscle contain the potential to repopulate all major peripheral blood lineages in lethally irradiated mice, but the origin of this activity is unknown. We have fractionated muscle cells on the basis of hematopoietic markers to show that the active population exclusively expresses the hematopoietic stem cell antigens Sca-1 and CD45. Muscle cells obtained from 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6-CD45.1 mice and enriched for cells expressing Sca-1 and CD45 were able to generate hematopoietic but not myogenic colonies in vitro and repopulated multiple hematopoietic lineages of lethally irradiated C57BL/6-CD45.2 mice. These data show that muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells are likely derived from the hematopoietic system and are a result not of transdifferentiation of myogenic stem cells but instead of the presence of substantial numbers of hematopoietic stem cells in the muscle. Although CD45-negative cells were highly myogenic in vitro and in vivo, CD45-positive muscle-derived cells displayed only very limited myogenic activity and only in vivo.
Project description:We previously reported the development of a lethal myeloid sarcoma in a non-human primate model utilizing retroviral vectors to genetically modify hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. This leukemia was characterized by insertion of the vector provirus into the BCL2A1 gene, with resultant BCL2A1 over-expression. There is little information on the role of this anti-apoptotic member of the BCL2 family in hematopoiesis or leukemia induction. Therefore we studied the impact of Bcl2a1a lentiviral over-expression on murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We demonstrated the anti-apoptotic function of this protein in hematopoietic cells, but did not detect any impact of Bcl2a1a on in vitro cell growth or cell cycle kinetics. In vivo, we showed a higher propensity of HSCs over-expressing Bcl2a1a to engraft and contribute to hematopoiesis. Mice over-expressing Bcl2a1a in the hematologic compartment eventually developed an aggressive malignant disease characterized as a leukemia/lymphoma of B-cell origin. Secondary transplants carried out to investigate the primitive origin of the disease revealed the leukemia was transplantable. Thus, Bcl2a1 should be considered as a proto-oncogene with a potential role in both lymphoid and myeloid leukemogenesis, and a concerning site for insertional activation by integrating retroviral vectors utilized in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.