Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A traditional Chinese medicine, Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), has been prescribed as a complementary treatment for glaucoma to improve patient prognosis. However, the pharmacological mechanism of action of TMP is poorly understood. In previous studies, we demonstrated that TMP exerts potent inhibitory effects on neovascularization, suppresses the tumorigenic behavior of glioma cells, and protects neural cells by regulating CXCR4 expression. Here, we further investigated whether the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway is also involved in the TMP-mediated activity in trabecular meshwork cells.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>CXCR4 expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR in trabecular and iris specimens from 54 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients who required surgery and 19 non-glaucomatous donors. Our data revealed markedly elevated CXCR4 expression in the trabecular meshwork of POAG patients compared with that of controls. Consistently, CXCR4 expression was much higher in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork cells than in normal trabecular meshwork cells. Using RT-PCR and western blot assays, we determined that glaucoma-related cytokines and dexamethasone (DEX) also significantly up-regulated CXCR4 expression in primary human trabecular meshwork (PHTM) cells. Moreover, the TGF-?1-mediated induction of CXCR4 expression in PHTM cells was markedly down-regulated by TMP compared with control treatment (PBS) and the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. In addition, TMP could counteract the TGF-?1-induced effects on stress fiber accumulation and expansion of PHTM cells. TMP markedly suppressed the migration of PHTM cells stimulated by TGF-?1 in transwell and scratch wound assays. TMP also suppressed the extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation induced by TGF-?2.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings demonstrate that CXCR4 might be involved in the pathogenetic changes in the trabecular meshwork of patients with POAG. Additionally, TMP might exert its beneficial effects in POAG patients by down-regulating CXCR4 expression.
Project description:Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by impaired aqueous outflow and extensive remodeling in the trabecular meshwork (TM). The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the expression patterns of selected proteins belonging to the tissue remodeling, inflammation and growth factor pathways in ex vivo glaucomatous and post-mortem TMs using protein-array analysis.TM specimens were collected from 63 white subjects, including 40 patients with glaucoma and 23 controls. Forty POAG TMs were collected at the time of surgery and 23 post-mortem specimens were from non-glaucomatous donor sclerocorneal tissues. Protein profiles were evaluated using a chip-based array consisting of 60 literature-selected antibodies.A different expression of some factors was observed in POAG TMs with respect to post-mortem specimens, either in abundance (interleukin [IL]10, IL6, IL5, IL7, IL12, IL3, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]1?/?, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], transforming growth factor beta 1 [TGF?1], soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I [sTNFRI]) or in scarcity (IL16, IL18, intercellular adhesion molecule 3 [ICAM3], matrix metalloproteinase-7 [MMP7], tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 [TIMP1]). MMP2, MMP7, TGF?1, and VEGF expressions were confirmed by Western blot, zymography, and polymerase chain reaction. No difference in protein profile expression was detected between glaucomatous subtypes.The analysis of this small TM population highlighted some proteins linked to POAG, some previously reported and others of new detection (IL7, MIPs, sTNF?RI). A larger POAG population is required to select promising disease-associated biomarker candidates.This study was partially supported by the Fondazione Roma, the Italian Ministry of Health and the "National 5xMille 2010 tax donation to IRCCS-G.B. Bietti Foundation".
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs were associated with the development and progression of glaucoma. Our study aim to identify the potential genes in human trabecular meshwork related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Overall design: LncRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles in trabecular meshwork from 4 normal controls and 4 POAG patients were determined through microarray analysis
Project description:Glaucoma is an optic neurological disorder and the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as its most prevalent form. An early diagnosis of the disease is crucial to prevent loss of vision. Mechanisms behind glaucoma pathogenesis are not completely understood, but disease related alterations in the serological autoantibody profile indicate an immunologic component. These changes in immunoreactivity may serve as potential biomarkers for glaucoma diagnostics. We aimed to identify novel disease related autoantibodies targeting antigens in the trabecular meshwork as biomarkers to support early detection of POAG. We used serological proteome analysis (SERPA) for initial autoantibody profiling in a discovery sample set. The identified autoantibodies were validated by protein microarray analysis in a larger cohort with 60 POAG patients and 45 control subjects. In this study, we discovered CALD1, PGAM1, and VDAC2 as new biomarker candidates. With the use of artificial neural networks, the panel of these candidates and the already known markers HSPD1 and VIM was able to classify subjects into POAG patients and non-glaucomatous controls with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 93%. These results suggest the benefit of these potential autoantibody biomarkers for utilization in glaucoma diagnostics.
Project description:To contrast genome-wide gene expression profiles of cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells to that of control and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) HTM tissues.Cultured HTM cells, HTM tissue dissected from control donors, and HTM tissue from POAG donors receiving medication for glaucoma were fixed in RNA latertrade mark. Total RNA extracted from these samples was linearly amplified with the Ovation Biotin RNA Amplification and Labeling System and individually hybridized to Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 high density microarrays. Data analysis was performed using GeneSpring Software 7.0. Selected genes showing significant differential expression were validated by quantitative real-time PCR in nonamplified RNA.Cultured HTM cells retained the expression of some genes characteristic of HTM tissue, including chitinase 3-like 1 and matrix Gla protein, but demonstrated downregulation of physiologically important genes such as myocilin. POAG HTM tissue showed relatively small changes compared to that of control donors. These changes included the statistically significant upregulation of several genes associated with inflammation and acute-phase response, including selectin-E (ELAM-I), as well as the downregulation of the antioxidants paraoxonase 3 and ceruloplasmin.Downregulation in cultured HTM cells of genes potentially relevant for outflow pathway function highlights the importance of developing new conditions for the culture of TM cells capable of preserving the characteristics of TM cells in vivo. Comparative analysis between control and POAG tissues suggests that the upregulation of inflammation-associated genes might be involved in the progression of glaucoma.
Project description:This study compared genome-wide expression profiles of individuals with and without Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG). One POAG case (case #6 with two replicates #10 and #11) carried a Q368X myocilin mutation. Overall design: This study compared the genome-wide expression in human trabecular meshwork tissue between 13 controls and 15 POAG cases. Six controls and one POAG cases had the expression performed from both left and right eyes. One technical replicate was done between two cases. The average from the biological replicates for each inidividual was used for analysis.
Project description:We compared phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol) profiles of control and glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) derived from human donors.Control TM and most primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) TM were collected from cadaver donors. A select subset of POAG surgical TM samples also were collected for analyses. Lipid extraction was performed using a modification of the Bligh and Dyer method, protein concentrations were determined using the Bradford method, and for select samples confirmed with densitometry of PHAST gels. Lipids were identified and subjected to ratiometric quantification using a TSQ quantum Access Max triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with precursor ion scan (PIS) or neutral ion loss scan (NLS), using appropriate class specific lipid standards.The comparative profiles of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphoethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol between control and glaucomatous TM showed several species common between them. A number of unique lipids in all four phospholipid classes also were identified in control TM that were absent in glaucoma TM and vice versa.A number of phospholipids were found to be uniquely present in control but absent in glaucomatous TM and vice versa. Compared to a previous study of control and POAG blood, a number of these phospholipids are absent locally (TM), as well as systemically (in blood).
Project description:This study compared genome-wide expression profiles of individuals with and without Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG). One POAG case (case #6 with two replicates #10 and #11) carried a Q368X myocilin mutation. This study compared the genome-wide expression in human trabecular meshwork tissue between 13 controls and 15 POAG cases. Six controls and one POAG cases had the expression performed from both left and right eyes. One technical replicate was done between two cases. The average from the biological replicates for each inidividual was used for analysis.
Project description:We investigated in vivo changes in Schlemm's canal and the trabecular meshwork in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Relationships between Schlemm's canal diameter, trabecular meshwork thickness, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were examined. Forty POAG patients and 40 normal individuals underwent 80-MHz Ultrasound Biomicroscopy examinations. The Schlemm's canal and trabecular meshwork were imaged in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal regions. Normal individuals had an observable Schlemm's canal in 80.3% of sections, a meridional canal diameter of 233.0±34.5 ?m, a coronal diameter of 44.5±12.6 ?m and a trabecular meshwork thickness of 103.9±11.1 ?m, in POAG patients, Schlemm's canal was observable in 53.1% of sections, a meridional canal diameter of 195.6±31.3 ?m, a coronal diameter of 35.7±8.0 ?m, and a trabecular meshwork thickness of 88.3±13.2 ?m, which significantly differed from normal (both p <0.001). Coronal canal diameter (r = -0.623, p < 0.001) and trabecular meshwork thickness (r = -0.663, p < 0.001) were negatively correlated with IOP, but meridional canal diameter was not (r = -0.160, p = 0.156). Schlemm's canal was observable in 50.5% and 56.6% of POAG patients with normal (<21 mmHg) and elevated (>21 mmHg) IOP, respectively (? = 1.159, p = 0.282). Coronal canal diameter was significantly lower in the elevated IOP group (32.6±4.9 ?m) than in the normal IOP group (35.7±8.0 ?m, p < 0.001). This was also true of trabecular meshwork thickness (81.9±10.0 ?m vs. 97.1±12.0 ?m, p < 0.001). In conclusion, eyes with POAG had fewer sections with an observable Schlemm's canal. Canal diameter and trabecular meshwork thickness were also lower than normal in POAG patients. Schlemm's canal coronal diameter and trabecular meshwork thickness were negatively correlated with IOP.
Project description:Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been observed in aqueous humour (AH) of POAG patients, resulting in an increase in the out-flow resistance of the AH. However, the underlining mechanisms remain elusive. Using established in vivo and in vitro POAG models, we demonstrated that water channel Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is down-regulated in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells upon ET-1 exposure, which causes a series of glaucomatous changes, including actin fibre reorganization, collagen production, extracellular matrix deposition and contractility alteration of TM cells. Ectopic expression of AQP1 can reverse ET-1-induced TM tissue remodelling, which requires the presence of ?-catenin. More importantly, we found that ET-1-induced AQP1 suppression is mediated by ATF4, a transcription factor of the unfolded protein response, which binds to the promoter of AQP1 and negatively regulates AQP1 transcription. Thus, we discovered a novel function of ATF4 in controlling the process of TM remodelling in ET-1-induced POAG through transcription suppression of AQP1. Our findings also detail a novel pathological mechanism and a potential therapeutic target for POAG.