Project description:We analyzed the functional role of DOR (Diabetes and Obesity Regulated gene) (also named Tp53inp2) in skeletal muscle. We show that DOR has a direct impact on skeletal muscle mass in vivo. Thus, using different transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that while muscle-specific DOR gain-of-function results in reduced muscle mass, loss-of-function causes muscle hypertrophy. DOR has been described as a protein with two different functions, i.e., a nuclear coactivator and an autophagy regulator (Baumgartner et. al., PLoS One, 2007; Francis et. al., Curr Biol, 2010; Mauvezin et. al., EMBO Rep, 2010; Nowak et. al., Mol Biol Cell, 2009). This is why we decided to analyze which of these two functions could explain the phenotype observed in our mice models. In this regard, we performed a transcriptomic analysis using microarrays looking for genes differentially expressed in the quadriceps muscle of WT and SKM-Tg mice as well as in C and SKM-KO animals. Surprisingly, only a reduced number of genes were dysregulated upon DOR manipulation and most of the genes underwent mild changes in expression. These data strongly suggest that DOR does not operate as a nuclear co-factor in mouse skeletal muscle under the conditions subjected to study. In contrast, DOR enhances basal autophagy in skeletal muscle and promotes muscle wasting when autophagy is a contributor to muscle loss. To determine the functional role of DOR in skeletal muscle, we generated transgenic mice (SKM-Tg) overexpressing DOR specifically in skeletal muscle under the Myosin-Light Chain 1 promoter/enhancer. The open reading frame of DOR was introduced in an EcoRI site in the MDAF2 vector, which contains a 1.5 kb fragment of the MLC1 promoter and 0.9 kb fragment of the MLC1/3 gene containing a 3' muscle enhancer element (Rosenthal et. al., PNAS, 1989; Otaegui et. al., FASEB J, 2003). The fragment obtained after the digestion of this construct with BssHII was the one used to generate both transgenic mouse lines. Nontransgenic littermates were used as controls for the transgenic animals (Wt). In addition, a muscle-specific DOR knock-out mouse line (SKM-KO) was also generated by crossing homozygous DOR loxP/loxP mice with a mouse strain expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Myosin-Light Chain 1 promoter (Bothe et. al., Genesis, 2000). Deletion of exons 3 and 4 driven by Cre recombinase caused the ablation of DOR expression. Non-expressing Cre DOR loxP/loxP littermates were used as controls for knockout animals (C). Four-month-old male mice were used in all experiments. Mice were in a C57BL/6J pure genetic background. We used microarrays to analyze the effect of DOR gain-of-function and DOR ablation on skeletal muscle gene expression Total RNA from quadriceps muscles from 4-month-old male mice was extracted and used for hibridization on Affimetrix microarrays
Project description:The acetyltransferases CBP and P300 have been implicated in myogenesis in mouse immortalized cell lines but these studies focused only on the expression of a handful of myogenic factors. Hence, the respective role of these two related cofactors and their impact at global scale on gene expression rewiring during primary myoblast differentiation remain unknown. Here, we characterised the gene networks regulated by these two epigenetic enzymes during human primary myoblast differentiation (HPM). We found that CBP and p300 play a critical role in the activation of the myogenic program and mostly regulate distinct gene sets to control several aspects of HPM biology, even though they also exhibit some degree of redundancy. Moreover, CBP or P300 knockdown strongly impaired muscle cell adhesion and resulted in the activation of inflammation markers, two hallmarks of dystrophic disease. This was further validated in zebrafish where inhibition of CBP and P300 enzymatic activities led to cell adhesion defects and muscle fiber detachment. Our data highlight an unforeseen link between CBP/P300 activity and the emergence of dystrophic phenotypes. They thereby identify CBP and P300 as mediators of adult muscle integrity and suggest a new lead for intervention in muscular dystrophy.
Project description:Copy number variation is an important dimension of genetic diversity and has implications in development and disease. As an important model organism, the mouse is a prime candidate for copy number variant (CNV) characterization, but this has yet to be completed for a large sample size. Here we report CNV analysis of publicly available, high-density microarray data files for 351 mouse tail samples, including 290 mice that had not been characterized for CNVs previously.We found 9634 putative autosomal CNVs across the samples affecting 6.87% of the mouse reference genome. We find significant differences in the degree of CNV uniqueness (single sample occurrence) and the nature of CNV-gene overlap between wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains. CNV-gene overlap was associated with lipid metabolism, pheromone response and olfaction compared to immunity, carbohydrate metabolism and amino-acid metabolism for wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains, respectively. Using two subspecies of wild-caught Mus musculus, we identified putative CNVs unique to those subspecies and show this diversity is better captured by wild-derived laboratory strains than by the classical laboratory strains. A total of 9 genic copy number variable regions (CNVRs) were selected for experimental confirmation by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).The analysis we present is a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of CNVs in Mus musculus, which increases the number of known variants in the species and will accelerate the identification of novel variants in future studies.
Project description:The mammalian vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses two G-protein coupled receptor gene families that mediate pheromone responses, the V1R and V2R receptor genes. In rodents, there are ~150 V1R genes comprising 12 subfamilies organized in gene clusters at multiple chromosomal locations. Previously, we showed that several of these subfamilies had been extensively modulated by gene duplications, deletions, and gene conversions around the time of the evolutionary split of the mouse and rat lineages, consistent with the hypothesis that V1R repertoires might be involved in reinforcing speciation events. Here, we generated genome sequence for one large cluster containing two V1R subfamilies in Mus spretus, a closely related and sympatric species to Mus musculus, and investigated evolutionary change in these repertoires along the two mouse lineages.We describe a comparison of spretus and musculus with respect to genome organization and synteny, as well as V1R gene content and phylogeny, with reference to previous observations made between mouse and rat. Unlike the mouse-rat comparisons, synteny seems to be largely conserved between the two mouse species. Disruption of local synteny is generally associated with differences in repeat content, although these differences appear to arise more from deletion than new integrations. Even though unambiguous V1R orthology is evident, we observe dynamic modulation of the functional repertoires, with two of seven V1Rb and one of eleven V1Ra genes lost in spretus, two V1Ra genes becoming pseudogenes in musculus, two additional orthologous pairs apparently subject to strong adaptive selection, and another divergent orthologous pair that apparently was subjected to gene conversion.Therefore, eight of the 18 (~44%) presumptive V1Ra/V1Rb genes in the musculus-spretus ancestor appear to have undergone functional modulation since these two species diverged. As compared to the rat-mouse split, where modulation is evident by independent expansions of these two V1R subfamilies, divergence between musculus and spretus has arisen more by mutations within coding sequences. These results support the hypothesis that adaptive changes in functional V1R repertoires contribute to the delineation of very closely related species.
Project description:The Mesio-Temporal Lobe Epilepsy syndrome is the most common form of intractable epilepsy. It is characterized by recurrence of focal seizures and is often associated with hippocampal sclerosis and drug resistance. We aimed to characterize the molecular changes occurring during the initial stages of epileptogenesis in search of new therapeutic targets for Mesio-Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. We used a mouse model obtained by intra-hippocampal microinjection of kainate and performed hippocampal whole genome expression analysis at 6h, 12h and 24h post-injection, followed by multilevel bioinformatics analysis. We report significant changes in immune and inflammatory responses, neuronal network reorganization processes and glial functions, predominantly initiated during status epilepticus at 12h and persistent after the end of status epilepticus at 24h post-kainate. Upstream regulator analysis highlighted Cyba, Cybb and Vim as central regulators of multiple overexpressed genes implicated in glial responses at 24h. In silico microRNA analysis indicated that miR-9, miR-19b, miR-129, and miR-223 may regulate the expression of glial-associated genes at 24h. Our data support the hypothesis that glial-mediated inflammatory response holds a key role during epileptogenesis, and that microglial cells may participate in the initial process of epileptogenesis through increased ROS production via the NOX complex.
Project description:SILAC based protein correlation profiling using size exclusion of protein complexes derived from seven Mus musculus tissues (Heart, Brain, Liver, Lung, Kidney, Skeletal Muscle, Thymus)
Project description:Persistent papillomas developed in ~10% of out-bred immune-competent SKH-1 mice following MusPV1 challenge of their tail, and in a similar fraction the papillomas were transient, suggesting potential as a model. However, papillomas only occurred in BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice depleted of T cells with anti-CD3 antibody, and they completely regressed within 8 weeks after depletion was stopped. Neither CD4+ nor CD8+ T cell depletion alone in BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice was sufficient to permit visible papilloma formation. However, low levels of MusPV1 were sporadically detected by either genomic DNA-specific PCR analysis of local skin swabs or in situ hybridization of the challenge site with an E6/E7 probe. After switching to CD3+ T cell depletion, papillomas appeared upon 14/15 of mice that had been CD4+ T cell depleted throughout the challenge phase, 1/15 of CD8+ T cell depleted mice, and none in mice without any prior T cell depletion. Both control animals and those depleted with CD8-specific antibody generated MusPV1 L1 capsid-specific antibodies, but not those depleted with CD4-specific antibody prior to T cell depletion with CD3 antibody. Thus, normal BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice eliminate the challenge dose, whereas infection is suppressed but not completely cleared if their CD4 or CD8 T cells are depleted, and recrudescence of MusPV1 is much greater in the former following treatment with CD3 antibody, possibly reflecting their failure to generate capsid antibody. Systemic vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with DNA vectors expressing MusPV1 E6 or E7 fused to calreticulin elicits potent CD8 T cell responses and these immunodominant CD8 T cell epitopes were mapped. Adoptive transfer of a MusPV1 E6-specific CD8+ T cell line controlled established MusPV1 infection and papilloma in RAG1-knockout mice. These findings suggest the potential of immunotherapy for HPV-related disease and the importance of host immunogenetics in the outcome of infection.
Project description:House mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are surprisingly complex and have features of bird song, but their functions are not well understood. Previous studies have reported mixed evidence on whether there are sex differences in USV emission, though vocalization rate or other features may depend upon whether potential receivers are of the same or opposite sex. We recorded the USVs of wild-derived adult house mice (F1 of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus), and we compared the vocalizations of males and females in response to a stimulus mouse of the same- or opposite-sex. To detect and quantify vocalizations, we used an algorithm that automatically detects USVs (Automatic Mouse Ultrasound Detector or A-MUD). We found high individual variation in USV emission rates (4 to 2083 elements/10 min trial) and a skewed distribution, with most mice (60%) emitting few (?50) elements. We found no differences in the rates of calling between the sexes overall, but mice of both sexes emitted vocalizations at a higher rate and higher frequencies during opposite- compared to same-sex interactions. We also observed a trend toward higher amplitudes by males when presented with a male compared to a female stimulus. Our results suggest that mice modulate the rate and frequency of vocalizations depending upon the sex of potential receivers.
Project description:Vascular remodeling is a pathological process following cardiovascular intervention. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) play a critical role in the vascular remodeling. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are a class of gene regulators functioning through various mechanisms in physiological and pathological conditions. By using cultured VSMC and rat carotid artery balloon injury model, we found that lncRNA growth arrest specific 5 (GAS5) serves as a negative regulator for VSMC survival in vascular remodeling. By manipulating GAS5 expression via adenoviral overexpression or short hairpin RNA knockdown, we found that GAS5 suppresses VSMC proliferation while promoting cell cycle arrest and inducing cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, GAS5 directly binds to p53 and p300, stabilizes p53-p300 interaction, and thus regulates VSMC cell survival via induction of p53-downstream target genes. Importantly, local delivery of GAS5 via adenoviral vector suppresses balloon injury-induced neointima formation along with an increased expression of p53 and apoptosis in neointimal SMCs. Our study demonstrated for the first time that GAS5 negatively impacts VSMC survival via activation the p53 pathway during vascular remodeling.