Project description:Gene expression profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells with hTERT/E6/E7 transfected MSCs. hTERT may change gene expression in MSCs. Goal was to determine the gene expressions of immortalized MSCs. One-condition experment, gene expression of 3A6
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.
Project description:As the evolution of miRNA genes has been found to be one of the important factors in formation of the modern type of man, we performed a comparative analysis of the evolution of miRNA genes in two archaic hominines, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens denisova, and elucidated the expression of their target mRNAs in bain.A comparative analysis of the genomes of primates, including species in the genus Homo, identified a group of miRNA genes having fixed substitutions with important implications for the evolution of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens denisova. The mRNAs targeted by miRNAs with mutations specific for Homo sapiens denisova exhibited enhanced expression during postnatal brain development in modern humans. By contrast, the expression of mRNAs targeted by miRNAs bearing variations specific for Homo sapiens neanderthalensis was shown to be enhanced in prenatal brain development.Our results highlight the importance of changes in miRNA gene sequences in the course of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis evolution. The genetic alterations of miRNAs regulating the spatiotemporal expression of multiple genes in the prenatal and postnatal brain may contribute to the progressive evolution of brain function, which is consistent with the observations of fine technical and typological properties of tools and decorative items reported from archaeological Denisovan sites. The data also suggest that differential spatial-temporal regulation of gene products promoted by the subspecies-specific mutations in the miRNA genes might have occurred in the brains of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, potentially contributing to the cultural differences between these two archaic hominines.
Project description:We have sequenced miRNA libraries from human embryonic, neural and foetal mesenchymal stem cells. We report that the majority of miRNA genes encode mature isomers that vary in size by one or more bases at the 3’ and/or 5’ end of the miRNA. Northern blotting for individual miRNAs showed that the proportions of isomiRs expressed by a single miRNA gene often differ between cell and tissue types. IsomiRs were readily co-immunoprecipitated with Argonaute proteins in vivo and were active in luciferase assays, indicating that they are functional. Bioinformatics analysis predicts substantial differences in targeting between miRNAs with minor 5’ differences and in support of this we report that a 5’ isomiR-9-1 gained the ability to inhibit the expression of DNMT3B and NCAM2 but lost the ability to inhibit CDH1 in vitro. This result was confirmed by the use of isomiR-specific sponges. Our analysis of the miRGator database indicates that a small percentage of human miRNA genes express isomiRs as the dominant transcript in certain cell types and analysis of miRBase shows that 5’ isomiRs have replaced canonical miRNAs many times during evolution. This strongly indicates that isomiRs are of functional importance and have contributed to the evolution of miRNA genes Sequence library of miRNAs from a single sample of human foetal mesenchymal stem cells. Results tested and confirmed by northern blotting. Please note that only raw data files are available for the embryonic and neual samples and thus, directly submitted to SRA (SRX547311, SRX548700, respectively under SRP042115/PRJNA247767)
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE20680: Whole Blood Cell Gene Expression Profiling in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease from the Cathgen Registry GSE20681: Whole Blood Cell Gene Expression Profiling in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease from the PREDICT Trial Refer to individual Series
Project description:The incorporation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for generating in vitro models that truly represent the microarchitecture found in human tissues. However, the cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions in vitro remains poorly understood in placental trophoblast biology. We investigated the effects of varying the surface properties (surface thickness and stiffness) of two ECMs, collagen I and Matrigel, on placental trophoblast cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and expression of markers involved in differentiation/syncytial fusion. Most notably, thicker Matrigel surfaces were found to induce the self-assembly of trophoblast cells into 3D spheroids that exhibited thickness-dependent changes in viability, proliferation, syncytial fusion, and gene expression profiles compared to two-dimensional cultures. Changes in F-actin organization, cell spread morphologies, and integrin and matrix metalloproteinase gene expression profiles, further reveal that the response to surface thickness may be mediated in part through cellular stiffness-sensing mechanisms. Our derivation of self-assembling trophoblast spheroid cultures through regulation of ECM surface alone contributes to a deeper understanding of cell-ECM interactions, and may be important for the advancement of in vitro platforms for research or diagnostics.
Project description:Gene methylation profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells comparing HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)- and HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs. hTERT may increase gene methylation in MSCs. Goal was to determine the effects of different transfected genes on global gene methylation in MSCs. Two-condition experiment, KP MSCs vs. 3A6 MSCs.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We investigated the evidence of recent positive selection in the human phototransduction system at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene level.<h4>Methods</h4>SNP genotyping data from the International HapMap Project for European, Eastern Asian, and African populations was used to discover differences in haplotype length and allele frequency between these populations. Numeric selection metrics were computed for each SNP and aggregated into gene-level metrics to measure evidence of recent positive selection. The level of recent positive selection in phototransduction genes was evaluated and compared to a set of genes shown previously to be under recent selection, and a set of highly conserved genes as positive and negative controls, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>Six of 20 phototransduction genes evaluated had gene-level selection metrics above the 90th percentile: RGS9, GNB1, RHO, PDE6G, GNAT1, and SLC24A1. The selection signal across these genes was found to be of similar magnitude to the positive control genes and much greater than the negative control genes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There is evidence for selective pressure in the genes involved in retinal phototransduction, and traces of this selective pressure can be demonstrated using SNP-level and gene-level metrics of allelic variation. We hypothesize that the selective pressure on these genes was related to their role in low light vision and retinal adaptation to ambient light changes. Uncovering the underlying genetics of evolutionary adaptations in phototransduction not only allows greater understanding of vision and visual diseases, but also the development of patient-specific diagnostic and intervention strategies.
Project description:Kynureninase is a member of a large family of catalytically diverse but structurally homologous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes known as the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily or alpha-family. The Homo sapiens and other eukaryotic constitutive kynureninases preferentially catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine to produce 3-hydroxyanthranilate and l-alanine, while l-kynurenine is the substrate of many prokaryotic inducible kynureninases. The human enzyme was cloned with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag, expressed, and purified from a bacterial expression system using Ni metal ion affinity chromatography. Kinetic characterization of the recombinant enzyme reveals classic Michaelis-Menten behavior, with a Km of 28.3 +/- 1.9 microM and a specific activity of 1.75 micromol min-1 mg-1 for 3-hydroxy-dl-kynurenine. Crystals of recombinant kynureninase that diffracted to 2.0 A were obtained, and the atomic structure of the PLP-bound holoenzyme was determined by molecular replacement using the Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase structure (PDB entry 1qz9) as the phasing model. A structural superposition with the P. fluorescens kynureninase revealed that these two structures resemble the "open" and "closed" conformations of aspartate aminotransferase. The comparison illustrates the dynamic nature of these proteins' small domains and reveals a role for Arg-434 similar to its role in other AAT alpha-family members. Docking of 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine into the human kynureninase active site suggests that Asn-333 and His-102 are involved in substrate binding and molecular discrimination between inducible and constitutive kynureninase substrates.
Project description:Invasion of cytotrophoblasts into uterine tissues is essential for placental development. To identify molecules regulating trophoblast invasion, mRNA signatures of purified villous (CTB, poor invasiveness) and extravillous (EVT, high invasiveness) trophoblasts isolated from first trimester human placentae and villous explant cultures, respectively, were compared using GeneChip analyses yielding 991 invasion/migration related transcripts. Several genes involved in physiological and pathologic cell invasion, including ADAM-12,-19,-28 as well as Spondin-2, were upregulated in EVT. Pathway prediction analyses identified several functional modules associated with either the invasive or the non-invasive trophoblast phenotype. One of the genes which were downregulated in the invasive mRNA pool, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was selected for functional analyses. Real-time PCR analyses, Western blottting, and immunofluorescene of first trimester placentae and differentiating villous explant cultures demonstrated downregulation of HO-1 in invasive EVT as compared to CTB. Modulation of HO-1 expression in loss-of as well as gain-of function cell models (BeWo and HTR8/SVneo, respectively) demonstrated an inverse relationship of HO-1 expression with trophoblast migration in transwell and wound healing assays. Importantly, HO-1 expression led to an increase in protein levels and activity of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARgamma. Pharmacological inhibition of PPARgamma abrogated the inhibitory effects of HO-1 on trophoblast migration. Collectively, our results demonstrate that gene expression profiling of EVT and CTB can be used to unravel novel regulators of cell invasion. Accordingly, we identify heme oxygenase-1 as a negative regulator of trophoblast motility acting via upregulation of PPARgamma. Experiment Overall Design: To identify genes potentially regulating cell invasion trophoblast cells of early human gestation with distinct invasive properties were profiled. Experiment Overall Design: Distinct gene expression signatures of highly invasive EVT (n = 6) and poorly invasive CTB (n = 5) of different first trimester placentae using Affymetrix U133A GeneChips interrogating >20,000 genes were determined.