Project description:FabR ChIP-chip on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 using anti-Myc antibody against strain with chromosomally 9Myc-tagged FabR (IP samples) and wildtype strain (mock IP samples) Overall design: IP sample (using anti-Myc antibody against Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 strain encoding chromosomally 9Myc-tagged FabR) and control mock IP sample (using anti-Myc antibody against Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 wildtype strain) were labeled with Cy5 and hybridized against a common genomic DNA reference, labeled with Cy3, on 2 S. Typhimurium LT2 whole genome tiling arrays
Project description:In enteric bacteria, DNA supercoiling is highly responsive to environmental conditions. Host specific features of environment serve as cues for the expression of genes required for colonization of host niches via changing supercoiling . It has been shown that substitution at position 87 of GyrA of Salmonella enterica str. SL1344 influences global supercoiling and results in an altered transcriptome with increased expression of stress response pathways . Aminocoumarin antibiotics, such as novobiocin, can be used to relax supercoiling and alter the expression of supercoiling-sensitive genes. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica demonstrates a significant resistance to this antibiotic and relatively small variability of supercoiling in response to the growth phase, osmotic pressure, and novobiocin treatment. Here we present for the first time transcriptome data of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium str. 14028S grown in the presence of novobiocin. These data will help identify genes involved in novobiocin resistance and adaptation processes associated with torsion perturbations in S. enterica. Cleaned FASTQ files for the RNA-seq libraries are deposited in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA, Identifier: SRP239815) and have been assigned BioProject accession PRJNA599397.
Project description:As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104) phage type (180 of 187 isolates). The second was resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmKmStSuTe phenotype; 44.6% of all isolates), most commonly of the DT193 phage type (77 of 165 isolates), which represents an unusual resistance pattern for DT193 isolates. We analyzed 64 representative isolates by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, which revealed DNA fingerprint similarities that correlated with both resistance patterns and phage types. To investigate the genetic basis for resistance among DT193 isolates, we characterized three AmKmStSuTe pentaresistant strains and one hexaresistant strain, which also expressed resistance to gentamicin (Gm phenotype), all of which had similar DNA fingerprints and all of which were collected during the same sampling. We found that the genes encoding the pentaresistance pattern were different from those from isolates of the DT104 phage type. We also found that all strains encoded all of their resistance genes on plasmids, unlike the chromosomally encoded genes of DT104 isolates, which could be transferred to Escherichia coli via conjugation, but that the plasmid compositions varied among the isolates. Two strains (strains UT08 and UT12) had a single, identical plasmid carrying bla(TEM) (which encodes ampicillin resistance), aphA1-Iab (which encodes kanamycin resistance), strA and strB (which encode streptomycin resistance), class B tetA (which encodes tetracycline resistance), and an unidentified sulfamethoxazole resistance allele. The third pentaresistant strain (strain UT20) was capable of transferring by conjugation two distinct resistance patterns, AmKmStSuTe and KmStSuTe, but the genes were carried on plasmids with slightly different restriction patterns (differing by a single band of 15 kb). The hexaresistant strain (strain UT30) had the same plasmid as strains UT08 and UT12, but it also carried a second plasmid that conferred the AmKmStSuGm phenotype. The second plasmid harbored the gentamicin resistance methylase (grm), which has not previously been reported in food-borne pathogenic bacteria. It also carried the sul1 gene for sulfamethoxazole resistance and a 1-kb class I integron bearing aadA for streptomycin resistance. We also characterized isolates of the DT104 phage type. We found a number of isolates that expressed resistance only to streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole (the StSu phenotype; 8.3% of serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen strains) but that had AFLP DNA fingerprints similar or identical to those of strains with genes encoding the typical AmCmStSuTe pentaresistance phenotype of DT104. These atypical StSu DT104 isolates were predominantly cultured from environmental samples and were found to carry only one class I integron of 1.0 kb, in contrast to the typical two integrons (InC and InD) of 1.0 and 1.2 kb, respectively, of the pentaresistant DT104 isolates. Our findings show the widespread existence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains and the diversity of multidrug resistance among epidemiologically related strains. The presence of resistance genes on conjugative plasmids and duplicate genes on multiple plasmids could have implications for the spread of resistance factors and for the stability of multidrug resistance among Salmonella serovar Typhimurium isolates.
Project description:Salmonella enterica is an ubiquitous pathogen throughout the world causing gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Survival of pathogenic bacteria in the external environment may be associated with the ability to overcome the stress caused by starvation. The bacterial response to starvation is well understood in laboratory cultures with a sufficiently high cell density. However, bacterial populations often have a small size when facing this challenge in natural biotopes. The aim of this work was to find out if there are differences in the transcriptomes of S. enterica depending on the factor of cell density during starvation. Here we present transcriptome data of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. 14028S grown in carbon rich or carbon deficient medium with high or low cell density. These data will help identify genes involved in adaptation of low-density bacterial populations to starvation conditions.
Project description:Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (RBL67), a human fecal isolate and health promoting candidate shows antagonistic and protective effects against Salmonella and Listeria spec. in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms fostering these effects remain unknown. In this study, the interactions of RBL67 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium N-15 (N-15) were explored by global transcriptional analysis.Growth experiments were performed in a complex nutritive medium with controlled pH of 6.0 and suitable for balanced growth of both RBL67 and N-15. RBL67 growth was slightly enhanced in presence of N-15. Conversely, N-15 showed reduced growth in the presence of RBL67. Transcriptional analyses revealed higher expression of stress genes and amino acid related function in RBL67 in co-culture with N-15 when compared to mono-culture. Repression of the PhoP regulator was observed in N-15 in presence of RBL67. Further, RBL67 activated virulence genes located on the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. Flagellar genes, however, were repressed by RBL67. Sequential expression of flagellar, SPI 1 and fimbrial genes is essential for Salmonella infection. Our data revealed that RBL67 triggers expression of SPI 1 and fimbrial determinants prematurely, potentially leading to redundant energy expenditure. In the competitive environment of the gut such energy expenditure could lead to enhanced clearing of Salmonella.Our study provides first insights into probiotic-pathogen interactions on global transcriptional level and suggests that deregulation of virulence gene expression might be an additional protective mechanism of probiotica against infections of the host.
Project description:Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).
Project description:The 47-kbp plasmid pGFT1 from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin mediated tetracycline resistance via a tet(A) gene located on an integrated copy of a Tn1721-analogous transposon. The integration site of the transposon was located within the reading frame of a fip gene. Plasmid pGFT1 was shown to be conjugative and to be able to replicate and express tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli.
Project description:We mapped the genome-wide binding of C-terminally FLAG-tagged AraC in S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s using ChIP coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq). We identified five putative target loci for AraC: upstream of araB/araC, araE, araJ, STM14_0178, and within sseD.
Project description:The gut microbiota confers resistance to pathogens of the intestinal ecosystem, yet the dynamics of pathogen-microbiome interactions and the metabolites involved in this process remain largely unknown. Here, we use gnotobiotic mice infected with the virulent pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans in combination with metagenomics and discovery metabolomics to identify changes in the community and metabolome during infection. To isolate the role of the microbiota in response to pathogens, we compared mice monocolonized with the pathogen, uninfected mice "humanized" with a synthetic human microbiome, or infected humanized mice. In Salmonella-infected mice, by 3 days into infection, microbiome community structure and function changed substantially, with a rise in Enterobacteriaceae strains and a reduction in biosynthetic gene cluster potential. In contrast, Candida-infected mice had few microbiome changes. The LC-MS metabolomic fingerprint of the cecum differed between mice monocolonized with either pathogen and humanized infected mice. Specifically, we identified an increase in glutathione disulfide, glutathione cysteine disulfide, inosine 5'-monophosphate, and hydroxybutyrylcarnitine in mice infected with Salmonella in contrast to uninfected mice and mice monocolonized with Salmonella These metabolites potentially play a role in pathogen-induced oxidative stress. These results provide insight into how the microbiota community members interact with each other and with pathogens on a metabolic level.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized for playing a critical role in human health and disease, especially in conferring resistance to both virulent pathogens such as Salmonella, which infects 1.2 million people in the United States every year (E. Scallan, R. M. Hoekstra, F. J. Angulo, R. V. Tauxe, et al., Emerg Infect Dis 17:7-15, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1701.P11101), and opportunistic pathogens like Candida, which causes an estimated 46,000 cases of invasive candidiasis each year in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013, 2013). Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, we investigate potential changes in gut microbial community structure and function during infection using metagenomics and metabolomics. We observe that changes in the community and in biosynthetic gene cluster potential occur within 3 days for the virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, but there are minimal changes with a poorly colonizing Candida albicans In addition, the metabolome shifts depending on infection status, including changes in glutathione metabolites in response to Salmonella infection, potentially in response to host oxidative stress.
Project description:Two well-characterized enzymes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli are able to hydrolyze N-terminal aspartyl (Asp) dipeptides: peptidase B, a broad-specificity aminopeptidase, and peptidase E, an Asp-specific dipeptidase. A serovar Typhimurium strain lacking both of these enzymes, however, can still utilize most N-terminal Asp dipeptides as sources of amino acids, and extracts of such a strain contain additional enzymatic activities able to hydrolyze Asp dipeptides. Here we report two such activities from extracts of pepB pepE mutant strains of serovar Typhimurium identified by their ability to hydrolyze Asp-Leu. Although each of these activities hydrolyzes Asp-Leu at a measurable rate, the preferred substrates for both are N-terminal isoAsp peptides. One of the activities is a previously characterized isoAsp dipeptidase from E. coli, the product of the iadA gene. The other is the product of the serovar Typhimurium homolog of E. coli ybiK, a gene of previously unknown function. This gene product is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile structural family of amidohydrolases. Like most other members of this family, the mature enzyme is generated from a precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and the active enzyme is a heterotetramer. Based on its ability to hydrolyze an N-terminal isoAsp tripeptide as well as isoAsp dipeptides, the enzyme appears to be an isoAsp aminopeptidase, and we propose that the gene encoding it be designated iaaA (isoAsp aminopeptidase). A strain lacking both IadA and IaaA in addition to peptidase B and peptidase E has been constructed. This strain utilizes Asp-Leu as a leucine source, and extracts of this strain contain at least one additional, as-yet-uncharacterized, peptidase able to cleave Asp dipeptides.