Project description:Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is an insecticide synergist known to inhibit the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. PBO is currently used in many insecticide formulations, and has also been suggested as a pre-treatment in some pesticide applications. Little is known about how insects respond to PBO exposure at the gene transcription level. We have characterised the transcriptional response of the Drosophila melanogaster genome after PBO treatment, using both a custom designed “detox” microarray containing cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and esterase genes, and a full genome microarray. We identify a subset of P450 and GST genes, along with additional metabolic genes, that are highly induced by PBO. The gene set is an extremely similar gene set to that induced by phenobarbital, a compound for which pre-treatment is known to confer tolerance to a range of insecticide compounds. The implications of the induction of gene families known to metabolise insecticides and the use of PBO in pest management programs are discussed. Keywords: Induction response after treatment by PBO Overall design: Drosophila melanogaster adult males were exposed to PBO. 8 replicates of 50 individuals were exposed to PBO and an additional 8 replicates of 50 individuals were exposed to the appropriate control (that is the same exposure conditions, without the addition of the compound). For each compound, RNA was extracted from all of the 8 samples and then pooled, before labelling. For each experiment exposed/unexposed labelling dye swaps were used to account for potential differences in labelling efficiency.
Project description:The effect of xenobiotics (phenobarbital and atrazine) on the expression of Drosophila melanogaster CYP genes encoding cytochromes P450, a gene family generally associated with detoxification, was analyzed by DNA microarray hybridization and verified by real time RT-PCR in adults of both sexes. Only a small subset of the 86 CYP genes was significantly induced by the xenobiotics. Eleven CYP genes and three GST genes were significantly induced by phenobarbital, seven CYP and one GST gene were induced by atrazine. Cyp6d5, Cyp6w1, Cyp12d1 and the ecdysone-inducible Cyp6a2 were induced by both chemicals. The constitutive expression of several of the inducible genes (Cyp6a2, Cyp6a8, Cyp6d5, Cyp12d1) was higher in males than in females, and the induced level similar in both sexes. Thus, the level of induction was consistently higher in females than in males. The female-specific and hormonally-regulated yolk protein genes were significantly induced by phenobarbital in males and repressed by atrazine in females. Our results suggest that the numerous CYP genes of Drosophila respond selectively to xenobiotics, providing the fly with an adaptive response to chemically adverse environments. The xenobiotic-inducibility of some CYP genes previously associated with insecticide resistance in laboratory-selected strains (Cyp6a2, Cyp6a8, Cyp12d1) suggests that deregulation of P450 gene expression may be a facile way to achieve resistance. Our study also suggests that xenobiotic-induced changes in P450 levels can affect insect fitness by interfering with hormonally-regulated networks. Keywords: induction by phenobarbital and atrazine in adults drosophila melanogaster of both sex. Overall design: Three independent biological repeat were done for each condition (control, atrazine treatment, phenobarbital treatment). For each microarray experiment, the Cy3 and the Cy5 were swapped between conditions to account for the potential differences in labelling efficiency.
Project description:The mechanism by which hypoxia induces gene transcription involves the inhibition of HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha subunit) PHD (prolyl hydroxylase) activity, which prevents the VHL (von Hippel-Lindau)-dependent targeting of HIF-1alpha to the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. HIF-1alpha thus accumulates and promotes gene transcription. In the present study, first we provide direct biochemical evidence for the presence of a conserved hypoxic signalling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster. An assay for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases was developed using Drosophila embryonic and larval homogenates as a source of enzyme. Drosophila PHD has a low substrate specificity and hydroxylates key proline residues in the ODD (oxygen-dependent degradation) domains of human HIF-1alpha and Similar, the Drosophila homologue of HIF-1alpha. The enzyme promotes human and Drosophila [(35)S]VHL binding to GST (glutathione S-transferase)-ODD-domain fusion protein. Hydroxylation is enhanced by proteasomal inhibitors and was ascertained using an anti-hydroxyproline antibody. Secondly, by using transgenic flies expressing a fusion protein that combined an ODD domain and the green fluorescent protein (ODD-GFP), we analysed the hypoxic cascade in different embryonic and larval tissues. Hypoxic accumulation of the reporter protein was observed in the whole tracheal tree, but not in the ectoderm. Hypoxic stabilization of ODD-GFP in the ectoderm was restored by inducing VHL expression in these cells. These results show that Drosophila tissues exhibit different sensitivities to hypoxia.
Project description:Graphical abstract Highlights • Contact to Dithiothreitol (DTT), a widely used antioxidant, is lethal to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.• At low concentrations, DTT contact induces the expression of some apoptosis genes.• In parallel, DTT triggers the expression of a cuticle barrier gene.• Expression of some genes involved in detoxification is intensified with increasing DTT concentrations.• Toxicity of DTT to the exnvironment should be tested. The thiol-containing compound Dithiothreitol (DTT) has been shown to be toxic to cultured cells by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species that ultimately cause cell death. However, its effects on multicellular organisms and the environment have not been investigated yet in detail. In this work, we tested the toxicity of DTT to the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. We show that DTT is lethal to D. melanogaster by topical application but not through feeding. DTT treatment triggers the transcription of the canonical apoptosis regulators grim, hid and rpr at low amounts. The amplitude of this induction declines with elevating DTT amounts. By live microscopy, we observe apoptotic cells especially in the gut of DTT treated flies. In parallel, low DTT amounts also activate the expression of the cuticle barrier component gene snsl. This indicates that a physical defence response is launched upon DTT contact. This combined measure is seemingly successful in preventing fly death. The expression of a number of known detoxification genes including cyp6a2, cyp6a8, cyp12d1 and GstD2 is also enhanced through DTT contact. The degree of upregulation of these genes is proportional to the applied DTT amounts. Despite this effort, flies exposed to high amounts of DTT eventually die. Together, D. melanogaster is able to sense DTT toxicity and adjust the defence response successfully at least at low concentrations. This is the first time to analyse the molecular consequences of DTT exposure in a multicellular organism. Our work provides a new model to discuss the physiological response of animals against thiol toxins and to resurvey the effect of redox agents on the environment.
Project description:Lufenuron is an insect growth regulator insecticide mainly used for the control of the cat flea. To understand mechanisms of resistance to lufenuron, we have characterized lufenuron resistance in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. In this study we have used precise genetic mapping to identify a mechanism of lufenuron resistance: the overexpression of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp12a4. Cyp12a4 is predicted to encode a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme. Expression of Cyp12a4 in D. melanogaster third-instar larvae was detected in the midgut and Malpighian tubules of both lufenuron-resistant and wild-type strains. The level of Cyp12a4 expression in the midgut is higher in the lufenuron-resistant strain than in wild-type strains. Driving the expression of Cyp12a4 in the midgut and Malpighian tubules by using the GAL4/UAS gene expression system results in lufenuron resistance, but it does not result in resistance to three other insecticide classes. Transgenic expression of Cyp12a4 in a ubiquitous expression pattern results in late embryonic lethality, suggesting that high-level ectopic expression of Cyp12a4 is detrimental to development.
Project description:The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1), a pigment cell-specific integral membrane glycoprotein, is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily that binds to heterotrimeric G proteins in mammalian cells. We aimed to characterize the physiological functions an insect OA1 from Lymantria dispar (LdOA1) employs in the regulation of insecticide tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the roles of LdOA1 in response to deltamethrin exposure in both L. dispar and Drosophila melanogaster. LdOA1 was expressed at the lowest level during the 4th instar stage, while LdOA1 was significantly upregulated in the 5th instar and male stages. Knockdown of LdOA1 by injecting dsRNA of LdOA1 into gypsy moth larvae caused a 4.80-fold higher mortality than in control larvae microinjected with dsRNA of GFP under deltamethrin stress. Nine out of 11 L. dispar CYP genes were significantly downregulated under deltamethrin stress in LdOA1 silenced larvae as compared to control larvae. Moreover, the LdOA1 gene was successfully overexpressed in D. melanogaster using transgenic technique. The deltamethrin contact assay showed that the LdOA1 overexpression in flies significantly enhanced the tolerance to deltamethrin compared to the control flies. Furthermore, the downstream Drosophila CYP genes were upregulated in the LdOA1 overexpression flies, suggesting LdOA1 may play a master switch role in P450-mediated metabolic detoxification. This study is the first report of an insect OA1 gene regulating insecticide tolerance and potentially playing a role in the regulation of downstream cytochrome P450 expression. These results contribute to the future development of novel insecticides targeting insect GPCRs.
Project description:This study investigated the genotoxicity of Lapachol (LAP) evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in the descendants from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses. This assay detects the loss of heterozygosity of marker genes expressed phenotypically on the fly's wings. Drosophila has extensive genetic homology to mammals, which makes it a suitable model organism for genotoxic investigations. Three-day-old larvae from ST crosses (females flr(3)/TM3, Bd(s) x males mwh/mwh), with basal levels of the cytochrome P450 and larvae of high metabolic bioactivity capacity (HB cross) (females ORR; flr(3)/TM3, Bd(s) x males mwh/mwh), were used. The results showed that LAP is a promutagen, exhibiting genotoxic activity in larvae from the HB cross. In other words, an increase in the frequency of spots is exclusive of individuals with a high level of the cytochrome P450. The results also indicate that recombinogenicity is the main genotoxic event induced by LAP.
Project description:Genetic variation influencing levels of gene expression is abundant in natural populations, and may exert its effects through complex mechanisms that depend on an organism's genetic background and the tissue in which expression is measured. We investigated natural variation in gene expression in the Malpighian tubules of three inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains and their F1 hybrids. One of the strains was from a population in the species' ancestral range (Zambia), while the other two were from a more recently derived population (Sweden). Although closely related, the two Swedish strains differed greatly in terms of their expression inheritance when hybridized with the Zambian strain, with one Swedish strain showing a large excess of genes with recessive expression inheritance, as well as a large number of genes with overdominant inheritance. Although most expression variation could be attributed to trans-regulation, there were ?200 genes that showed allele-specific expression differences in each of the between-population hybrids, indicating that cis-regulation contributes as well. The cis-regulated genes were enriched with cytochrome P450 genes, and the upstream regions of six of these genes were incorporated into transgenic reporter gene constructs to test their effects on expression. Differential expression was observed for five of the six reporter genes in the Malpighian tubule, suggesting that a large proportion of cis-regulatory variation lies directly upstream of the affected gene. In most cases, the differential expression was specific to the Malpighian tubule or greater in this tissue than in the rest of the body, highlighting the importance of single-tissue studies of gene expression variation.
Project description:Within species, levels of gene expression typically vary greatly between tissues, sexes, individuals, and populations. To investigate gene expression variation between sexes and populations in a single somatic tissue, we performed a quantitative analysis of the Malpighian tubule transcriptome in adult males and females of Drosophila melanogaster derived from two distinct populations (one from sub-Saharan Africa and one from northern Europe). We identified 2308 genes that differed in expression between the sexes and 2474 genes that differed in expression between populations at a false discovery rate of 5%. We also identified more than 1000 genes that showed a sex-by-population interaction in their expression. The genes that differed in expression between sexes showed enrichment for a wide variety of functions, although only 55% of them overlapped with sex-biased genes identified in whole-fly studies. The genes expressed differentially between populations included several that were previously implicated in adaptive regulatory evolution, an excess of cytochrome P450 genes, and many genes that were not detected in previous studies of whole flies. Our results demonstrate that there is abundant intraspecific gene expression variation within in a single, somatic tissue and uncover new candidates for adaptive regulatory evolution between populations.