Project description:Obesity is a large and growing global health problem with few effective therapies. The present study investigated metabolic and physiological benefits of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase inhibitor (NNMTi) treatment combined with a lean diet substitution in diet-induced obese mice. NNMTi treatment combined with lean diet substitution accelerated and improved body weight and fat loss, increased whole-body lean mass to body weight ratio, reduced liver and epididymal white adipose tissue weights, decreased liver adiposity, and improved hepatic steatosis, relative to a lean diet substitution alone. Importantly, combined lean diet and NNMTi treatment normalized body composition and liver adiposity parameters to levels observed in age-matched lean diet control mice. NNMTi treatment produced a unique metabolomic signature in adipose tissue, with predominant increases in ketogenic amino acid abundance and alterations to metabolites linked to energy metabolic pathways. Taken together, NNMTi treatment's modulation of body weight, adiposity, liver physiology, and the adipose tissue metabolome strongly support it as a promising therapeutic for obesity and obesity-driven comorbidities.
Project description:The purpose of this experiment was to determine the murine liver expression traits that were changed in response to diet induced obesity. Keywords: diet induced obesity signature Overall design: Liver tissue from five diet induced obesity (DIO) mice were arrayed against a pool of liver tissue from chow-fed wildtype B6 animals. All samples were hybridized as fluor-reverse pairs, and then the data between the pairs was combined to form a single experiment. Five repeats were performed to increase the power to detect expression changes and to reduce effects of experimental noise.
Project description:Obesity is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases in the Western world and correlates directly with insulin resistance, which may ultimately culminate in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to ascertain whether the human metalloproteinase A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 19 (ADAM19) correlates with parameters of the metabolic syndrome in humans and mice. To determine the potential novel role of ADAM19 in the metabolic syndrome, we first conducted microarray studies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a well-characterised human cohort. Secondly, we examined the expression of ADAM19 in liver and gonadal white adipose tissue using an in vivo diet induced obesity mouse model. Finally, we investigated the effect of neutralising ADAM19 on diet induced weight gain, insulin resistance in vivo, and liver TNF-? levels. Significantly, we show that, in humans, ADAM19 strongly correlates with parameters of the metabolic syndrome, particularly BMI, relative fat, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides. Furthermore, we identified that ADAM19 expression was markedly increased in the liver and gonadal white adipose tissue of obese and T2D mice. Excitingly, we demonstrate in our diet induced obesity mouse model that neutralising ADAM19 therapy results in weight loss, improves insulin sensitivity, and reduces liver TNF-? levels. Our novel data suggest that ADAM19 is pro-obesogenic and enhances insulin resistance. Therefore, neutralisation of ADAM19 may be a potential therapeutic approach to treat obesity and T2D.
Project description:Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is known to play important regulatory roles in bile acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Aged (>12 months old) Fxr(-/-) mice also develop spontaneous liver carcinomas. In this report, we used three mouse models to investigate the role of FXR deficiency in obesity. As compared with low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice, the Ldlr(-/-)Fxr(-/-) double-knockout mice were highly resistant to diet-induced obesity, which was associated with increased expression of genes involved in energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Such a striking effect of FXR deficiency on obesity on an Ldlr(-/-) background led us to investigate whether FXR deficiency alone is sufficient to affect obesity. As compared with wild-type mice, Fxr(-/-) mice showed resistance to diet-induced weight gain. Interestingly, only female Fxr(-/-) mice showed significant resistance to diet-induced obesity, which was accompanied by increased energy expenditure in these mice. Finally, we determined the effect of FXR deficiency on obesity in a genetically obese and diabetic mouse model. We generated ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice that were deficient in both Leptin and Fxr. On a chow diet, ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice gained less body weight and had reduced body fat mass as compared with ob/ob mice. In addition, we observed liver carcinomas in 43% of young (<11 months old) Ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice. Together these data indicate that loss of FXR prevents diet-induced or genetic obesity and accelerates liver carcinogenesis under diabetic conditions.
Project description:Rodent betaherpesviruses vary considerably in genomic content, and these variations can result in a distinct pathogenicity. Therefore, the identification of unknown betaherpesviruses in house mice (Mus musculus), the most important rodent host species in basic research, is of importance. During a search for novel herpesviruses in house mice using herpesvirus consensus PCR and attempts to isolate viruses in tissue culture, we identified a previously unknown betaherpesvirus. The primary PCR search in mouse organs revealed the presence of known strains of murine cytomegalovirus (Murid herpesvirus 1) and of Mus musculus rhadinovirus 1 only. However, the novel virus was detected after incubation of organ pieces in fibroblast tissue culture and subsequent PCR analysis of the supernatants. Long-distance PCR amplification including the DNA polymerase and glycoprotein B genes revealed a 3.4 kb sequence that was similar to sequences of rodent cytomegaloviruses. Pairwise sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses showed that this newly identified murine virus is most similar to the English isolate of rat cytomegalovirus, thereby raising the possibility that two distinct CMV lineages have evolved in both Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus.
Project description:Liver fibrosis is a major pathological feature of chronic liver diseases, including liver cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally and play important roles in various kinds of diseases; however, miRNA-associated hepatic fibrogenesis and its acting mechanisms are poorly investigated. Therefore, we performed an miRNA microarray in the fibrotic livers of Mus musculus treated with carbon-tetrachloride (CCl₄) and analyzed the biological functions engaged by the target genes of differentially-expressed miRNAs through gene ontology (GO) and in-depth pathway enrichment analysis. Herein, we found that four miRNAs were upregulated and four miRNAs were downregulated more than two-fold in CCl₄-treated livers compared to a control liver. Eight miRNAs were predicted to target a total of 4079 genes. GO analysis revealed that those target genes were located in various cellular compartments, including cytoplasm, nucleolus and cell surface, and they were involved in protein-protein or protein-DNA bindings, which influence the signal transductions and gene transcription. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the 72 subspecialized signaling pathways were associated with CCl₄-induced liver fibrosis and were mostly classified into metabolic function-related pathways. These results suggest that CCl₄ induces liver fibrosis by disrupting the metabolic pathways. In conclusion, we presented several miRNAs and their biological processes that might be important in the progression of liver fibrosis; these findings help increase the understanding of liver fibrogenesis and provide novel ideas for further studies of the role of miRNAs in liver fibrosis.
Project description:<b>Background and aims: </b>Associated with numerous metabolic and behavioral abnormalities, obesity is classified by metrics reliant on body weight (such as body mass index). However, overnutrition is the common cause of obesity, and may independently contribute to these obesity-related abnormalities. Here, we use dietary challenges to parse apart the relative influence of diet and/or energy balance from body weight on various metabolic and behavioral outcomes.<br><br><b>Materials and methods: </b>Seventy male mice (mus musculus) were subjected to the diet switch feeding paradigm, generating groups with various body weights and energetic imbalances. Spontaneous activity patterns, blood metabolite levels, and unbiased gene expression of the nutrient-sensing ventral hypothalamus (using RNA-sequencing) were measured, and these metrics were compared using standardized multivariate linear regression models.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Spontaneous activity patterns were negatively related to body weight (p<0.0001) but not diet/energy balance (p = 0.63). Both body weight and diet/energy balance predicted circulating glucose and insulin levels, while body weight alone predicted plasma leptin levels. Regarding gene expression within the ventral hypothalamus, only two genes responded to diet/energy balance (neuropeptide y [npy] and agouti-related peptide [agrp]), while others were related only to body weight.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Collectively, these results demonstrate that individual components of obesity-specifically obesogenic diets/energy imbalance and elevated body mass-can have independent effects on metabolic and behavioral outcomes. This work highlights the shortcomings of using body mass-based indices to assess metabolic health, and identifies novel associations between blood biomarkers, neural gene expression, and animal behavior following dietary challenges.
Project description:The objective of this study was to assess the activity of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13 (interleukin-13) in blocking high-fat diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance and liver steatosis.C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet and received hydrodynamic delivery of plasmids carrying the mouse Il-13 or Gfp (control) gene. IL-13 blood protein levels, food consumption and body weight of mice were continuously monitored for 8 weeks. Fat and lean masses of treated and control animals were determined at the end of the experiment. Serum concentrations of glucose, insulin and lipids were determined, and mRNA levels of macrophage marker genes in adipose tissue and genes involved in energy metabolism were examined using real-time PCR. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests were performed to determine glucose homeostasis. Histochemistry and lipid assays were performed to determine the hepatic lipid accumulation.Blood concentration of IL-13 was 20?ng?ml(-1) 1 week after gene delivery and declined with time. Overexpression of Il-13 prevented high-fat diet-induced weight gain without affecting food consumption. Mice that underwent Il-13 gene transfer showed regular body weight and normal serum concentrations of glucose and insulin, and less lipid accumulation in the liver. Overexpression of Il-13 blocked macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and suppressed high-fat diet-induced expression of inflammatory F4/80, Cd68 and Mcp1, and elevated the expression of Ucp1 (uncoupling protein 1 gene) responsible for energy expenditure.These results suggest that suppression of diet-induced inflammation by IL-13 is an effective strategy in preventing diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance and fatty liver.