Project description:The inner ear in mammals is derived from a simple ectodermal thickening called the otic placode. Through a series of complex morphological changes, the placode forms the mature inner ear comprising of the auditory organ (cochlea) and the vestibular/balance organs (utricle, saccule, and three semi-circular canals). The vast majority of genes known to be involved during inner ear development have been found through mutational screens or by chance. To identify genes that can serve as novel candidates required for inner ear development, and also candidate genes for uncloned human deafnesses, inner ear tissues from mouse embryos from E9 to E15 were microdissected and expression-profiled at half-day intervals. Also profiled was the non-inner ear mesenchymal tissue surrounding the inner ear tissue. Various patterns of gene expression were identified, and significant biological pathways that these genes represented were identified. Also identified were mouse genes whose human orthologs are located within uncloned non-syndromic deafness intervals, thus serving as candidates for sequence analysis. Experiment Overall Design: Inner ear tissues from E9 to E15 were microdissected at half-day intervals. E9 is the earliest stage when the otic placode is clearly visible and able to be microdissected cleanly. E15 is the stage when all the organs of the inner ear have become established, as have the sensory hair and non-sensory support cells within those organs. For each of the stages from E9 to E10, whole inner ears were profiled. For each of the stages from E10.5 to E12, the primordial cochlear and vestibular organs were profiled separately. For each of the stages from E12.5 to E15, the cochlea and the saccule were profiled separately, whereas the utricle and the three ampullae were combined and profiled together. Any given tissue from any given stage was a collection of anywhere between 4 to 17 identical tissues, and was obtained in duplicate (i.e. from different litters). Hence, a total of 58 inner ear samples were obtained. Moreover, non-inner ear tissue found in the immediate vicinity of inner ear tissue was also obtained and profiled. Specifically, all non-inner ear tissue from E9 was profiled in duplicate. Non-inner ear tissue from E9.5 to E10.5 was pooled and profiled together (in duplicate), whereas that from E11 to E15 was pooled and profiled together (also in duplicate). Therefore, a total of 6 non-inner samples were obtained.
Project description:We describe the most comprehensive study to date on gene expression during mouse inner ear (IE) organogenesis. Samples were microdissected from mouse embryos at E9-E15 in half-day intervals, a period that spans all of IE organogenesis. These included separate dissections of all discernible IE substructures such as the cochlea, utricle, and saccule. All samples were analyzed on high density expression microarrays under strict statistical filters. Extensive confirmatory tests were performed, including RNA in situ hybridizations. More than 5000 genes significantly varied in expression according to developmental stage, tissue, or both and defined 28 distinct expression patterns. For example, upregulation of 315 genes provided a clear-cut "signature" of early events in IE specification. Additional, clear-cut, gene expression signatures marked specific structures such as the cochlea, utricle, or saccule throughout late IE development. Pathway analysis identified 53 signaling cascades enriched within the 28 patterns. Many novel pathways, not previously implicated in IE development, including beta-adrenergic, amyloid, estrogen receptor, circadian rhythm, and immune system pathways, were identified. Finally, we identified positional candidate genes in 54 uncloned nonsyndromic human deafness intervals. This detailed analysis provides many new insights into the spatial and temporal genetic specification of this complex organ system.
Project description:Potential treatment strategies of neurodegenerative and other diseases with stem cells derived from nonembryonic tissues are much less subjected to ethical criticism than embryonic stem cell-based approaches. Here we report the isolation of inner ear stem cells, which may be useful in cell replacement therapies for hearing loss, after protracted postmortem intervals. We found that neonatal murine inner ear tissues, including vestibular and cochlear sensory epithelia, display remarkably robust cellular survival, even 10 days postmortem. Similarly, isolation of sphere-forming stem cells was possible up to 10 days postmortem. We detected no difference in the proliferation and differentiation potential between stem cells isolated directly after death and up to 5 days postmortem. At longer postmortem intervals, we observed that the potency of sphere-derived cells to spontaneously differentiate into mature cell types diminishes prior to the cells losing their potential for self-renewal. Three-week-old mice also displayed sphere-forming stem cells in all inner ear tissues investigated up to 5 days postmortem. In summary, our results demonstrate that postmortem murine inner ear tissue is suited for isolation of stem cells.
Project description:Single-cell proteomics can reveal the changing protein composition of differentiating cells. We used shotgun mass spectrometry to determine the abundant proteins present in single or small pools of subpicoliter-sized cells from the embryonic day 15 (E15) utricle of the chicken inner ear, when many hair cells are differentiating from progenitor (supporting) cells. The actin monomer binding protein thymosin β4 (TMSB4X) was present in E15 progenitor cells at nearly equimolar levels relative to actin, but dropped to one-tenth that value in hair cells, with little change in total actin. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of E15 utricle cells showed that TMSB4X transcripts fell in abundance once hair-cell differentiation initiated. These results suggest that most actin is sequestered in progenitor cells, but upon differentiation to hair cells, actin is released, permitting assembly of the sensory hair bundle.
Project description:Inner ear auditory and vestibular tissues differ in their responses to mechanical stimuli. Chick cochlea and utricle sensory epithelia were microdissected at E20-E21. RNA was extracted and cRNA hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Specialization in cell function and morphology is influenced by the differential expression of mRNAs, many of which are expressed at low abundance and restricted to certain cell types. Detecting such transcripts in cDNA libraries may require sequencing millions of clones. Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) is well suited to identifying transcripts that are expressed in discrete cell types and in low abundance. We have made MPSS libraries from microdissections of three inner ear tissues. By comparing these MPSS libraries to those of 87 other tissues included in the Mouse Reference Transcriptome online resource, we have identified genes that are highly enriched in, or specific to, the inner ear. We show by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization that signatures unique to the inner ear libraries identify transcripts with highly specific cell-type localizations. These transcripts serve to illustrate the utility of a resource that is available to the research community. Utilization of these resources will increase the number of known transcription units and expand our knowledge of the tissue-specific regulation of the transcriptome.
Project description:The T-box transcription factor Tbx1 is expressed in the otic vesicle and surrounding periotic mesenchyme during inner ear development. Mesenchymal Tbx1 is essential for inner ear development, with conditional mutants displaying defects in both auditory and vestibular systems. We have previously identified reduced expression of retinoic acid metabolic genes in the periotic mesenchyme of mesoderm conditional Tbx1 mutants, using the T-Cre mouse line, implicating retinoic acid in mesenchymal-epithelial signaling downstream of Tbx1 in the periotic mesenchyme. In order to identify downstream effectors of mesenchymal-epithelial signaling downstream of mesenchymal Tbx1, we have utilized a gene profiling approach comparing embryonic day 12.5 periotic tissue from T-Cre-mediated conditional Tbx1 mutants (Mest-KO) and conditional heterozygous control litter mates (control). E12.5 T-Cre-mediated conditional Tbx1 mutants (Mest-KO) and control (T-Cre conditional Tbx1 heterozygotes) embryos were microdissected to isolate the otic vesicle and surrounding periotic mesenchyme. Left and right tissue from each individual embryo was pooled, and 5 control and 5 mutant embryos were analyzed on individual microarrays using Affymetrix Mouse Gene ST 1.0 chips.
Project description:This study was conducted to explore the regulatory role of methionine (Met) in feather follicle and feather development during the embryonic period of chicks. A total of 280 fertile eggs (40 eggs/group) were injected with 0, 5, 10, 20 mg of L-Met or DL-Met/per egg on embryonic day 9 (E9), and whole-body feather and skin tissues were collected on E15 and the day of hatching (DOH). The whole-body feather weight was determined to describe the feather growth, and the skin samples were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and Western blotting for the evaluation of feather follicle development and the expressions of Wingless/Int (Wnt)/?-catenin signaling pathway proteins, respectively. The results showed that L- or DL-Met did not affect the embryo weight (P > 0.05), but increased the absolute and relative whole-body feather weights. Specifically, 5 and 10 mg of L-Met and 5, 10, and 20 mg of DL-Met significantly increased the absolute feather weight at E15 (P < 0.05), and 10 mg of L-Met and 5 and 10 mg of DL-Met significantly increased the absolute and relative feather weight on the DOH (P < 0.05). Moreover, a main effect analysis suggested that changes in the embryo and feather weights were related to the Met levels (P < 0.05) but not the Met source (P > 0.05). The levels of L- and DL-Met were quadratically correlated with the absolute and relative feather weights of chicks on the DOH (P < 0.05). Correspondingly, all doses of L- and DL-Met significantly increased the diameter and density of feather follicles on the DOH (P < 0.05), as well as the activity of Wnt/?-catenin on E15 and the DOH (P < 0.05). In conclusion, injection of either L- or DL-Met can improve feather follicle development by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling, and thereby promoting feather growth; furthermore, no difference in feather growth was found between L- and DL-Met treatments. Our findings might provide a nutritional intervention for regulating feather growth in poultry production.
Project description:Endocrine factors and signals of fetal organ maturation are reported determinants of birth timing. To test the hypothesis that paracrine signaling by exosomes are key regulators of parturition, maternal plasma exosomes from CD-1 mice were isolated and characterized throughout gestation and the biological pathways associated with differentially-expressed cargo proteins were determined. Results indicate that the shape and size of exosomes remained constant throughout gestation; however, a progressive increase in the quantity of exosomes carrying inflammatory mediators was observed from gestation day (E)5 to E19. In addition, the effects of late-gestation (E18) plasma exosomes derived from feto-maternal uterine tissues on parturition was determined. Intraperitoneal injection of E18 exosomes into E15 mice localized in maternal reproductive tract tissues and in intrauterine fetal compartments. Compared to controls that delivered at term, preterm birth occurred in exosome-treated mice on E18 and was preceded by increased inflammatory mediators on E17 in the cervix, uterus, and fetal membranes but not in the placenta. This effect was not observed in mice injected with early-gestation (E9) exosomes. This study provides evidence that exosomes function as paracrine mediators of labor and delivery.