HILIC high resolution separation for iTRAQ high throughput proteomics
ABSTRACT: HILIC runs (separate LC-MS) of mixed proteome from closely related cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Quantitative comparisons across species can only be made using orthologous peptides. All other peptides are used to assess biological variation and MS/MS co-elution study.
Project description:Rising awareness of the universal importance of protein N-glycosylation governs the development of further advances in N-glycan analysis. Nowadays it is well known that correct glycosylation is essential for proper protein function, which emanates from its important role in many physiological processes. Furthermore, glycosylation is involved in pathophysiology of multiple common complex diseases. In the vast majority of cases, N-glycosylation profiles are analyzed from enzymatically released glycans, which can be further derivatized in order to enhance the sensitivity of the analysis. Techniques wherein derivatized N-glycans are profiled using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) with fluorescence (FLR) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection are now routinely performed in a high-throughput manner. Therefore, we aimed to examine the performance of frequently used labeling compounds -2-aminiobenzamide (2-AB) and procainamide (ProA), and the recently introduced <i>Rapi</i>Fluor-MS (RF-MS) fluorescent tag. In all experiments N-glycans were released by PNGase F, fluorescently derivatized, purified by HILIC solid phase extraction and profiled using HILIC-UPLC-FLR-MS. We assessed sensitivity, linear range, limit of quantification (LOQ), repeatability and labeling efficiency for all three labels. For this purpose, we employed in-house prepared IgG and a commercially available IgG as a model glycoprotein. All samples were analyzed in triplicates using different amounts of starting material. We also tested the performance of all three labels in a high-throughput setting on 68 different IgG samples, all in duplicates and 22 identical IgG standards. In general, ProA labeled glycans had the highest FLR sensitivity (15-fold and 4-fold higher signal intensities compared to 2-AB and RF-MS respectively) and RF-MS had the highest MS sensitivity (68-fold and 2-fold higher signal intensities compared to 2-AB and ProA, respectively). ProA and RF-MS showed comparable limits of quantification with both FLR and MS detection, whilst 2-AB exhibited the lowest sensitivity. All labeling procedures showed good and comparable repeatability. Furthermore, the results indicated that labeling efficiency was very similar for all three labels. In conclusion, all three labels are a good choice for N-glycan derivatization in high-throughput HILIC-UPLC-FLR-MS N-glycan analysis, although ProA and RF-MS are a better option when higher sensitivity is needed.
Project description:Recent progress in top-down proteomics has driven the demand for chromatographic methods compatible with mass spectrometry (MS) that can separate intact proteins. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has recently shown good potential for the characterization of glycoforms of intact proteins. In the present study, we demonstrate that HILIC can separate a wide range of proteins exhibiting orthogonal selectivity with respect to reversed-phase LC (RPLC). However, the application of HILIC to the analysis of low abundance proteins (e.g., in proteomics analysis) is hampered by low volume loadability, hindering down-scaling of the method to column diameters below 2.1 mm. Moreover, HILIC-MS sensitivity is decreased due to ion suppression from the trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) often used as the ion-pair agent to improve the selectivity and efficiency in the analysis of glycoproteins. Here, we introduce a capillary-based HILIC-MS method that overcomes these problems. Our method uses RPLC trap-columns to load and inject the sample, circumventing issues of protein solubility and volume loadability in capillary columns (200 ?m ID). The low flow rates and use of a dopant gas in the electrospray interface improve protein-ionization efficiencies and reduce suppression by TFA. Overall, this allows the separation and detection of small protein quantities (down to 5 ng injected on column) as indicated by the analysis of a mixture of model proteins. The potential of the new capillary HILIC-MS is demonstrated by the analysis of a complex cell lysate.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:As large scale metabolic phenotyping is increasingly employed in preclinical studies and in the investigation of human health and disease the current LC-MS/MS profiling methodologies adopted for large sample sets can result in lengthy analysis times, putting strain on available resources. As a result of these pressures rapid methods of untargeted analysis may have value where large numbers of samples require screening. OBJECTIVES:To develop, characterise and evaluate a rapid UHP-HILIC-MS-based method for the analysis of polar metabolites in rat urine and then extend the capabilities of this approach by the addition of IMS to the system. METHODS:A rapid untargeted HILIC LC-MS/MS profiling method for the analysis of small polar molecules has been developed. The 3.3 min separation used a Waters BEH amide (1 mm ID) analytical column on a Waters Synapt G2-Si Q-Tof enabled with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The methodology, was applied to the metabolic profiling of a series of rodent urine samples from vehicle-treated control rats and animals administered tienilic acid. The same separation was subsequently linked to IMS and MS to evaluate the benefits that IMS might provide for metabolome characterisation. RESULTS:The rapid HILIC-MS method was successfully applied to rapid analysis of rat urine and found, based on the data generated from the data acquired for the pooled quality control samples analysed at regular intervals throughout the analysis, to be robust. Peak area and retention times for the compounds detected in these samples showed good reproducibility across the batch. When used to profile the urine samples obtained from vehicle-dosed control and those administered tienilic acid the HILIC-MS method detected 3007 mass/retention time features. Analysis of the same samples using HILIC-IMS-MS enabled the detection of 6711 features. Provisional metabolite identification for a number of compounds was performed using the high collision energy MS/MS information compared against the Metlin MS/MS database and, in addition, both calculated and measured CCS values from an experimentally derived CCS database. CONCLUSION:A rapid metabolic profiling method for the analysis of polar metabolites has been developed. The method has the advantages of speed and both reducing sample and solvent consumption compared to conventional profiling methods. The addition of IMS added an additional dimension for feature detection and the identification of metabolites.
Project description:Protein glycosylation analysis is challenging due to the structural variety of complex conjugates. However, chromatographically separating glycans attached to tryptic peptides enables their site-specific characterization. For this purpose, we have shown the importance of selecting a suitable hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase in the separation of glycopeptides and their isomers. Three different HILIC stationary phases, i.e., HALO® penta-HILIC, Glycan ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) Amide, and ZIC-HILIC, were compared in the separation of complex N-glycopeptides of hemopexin and Immunoglobulin G glycoproteins. The retention time increased with the polarity of the glycans attached to the same peptide backbone in all HILIC columns tested in this study, except for the ZIC-HILIC column when adding sialic acid to the glycan moiety, which caused electrostatic repulsion with the negatively charged sulfobetaine functional group, thereby decreasing retention. The HALO® penta-HILIC column provided the best separation results, and the ZIC-HILIC column the worst. Moreover, we showed the potential of these HILIC columns for the isomeric separation of fucosylated and sialylated glycoforms. Therefore, HILIC is a useful tool for the comprehensive characterization of glycoproteins and their isomers.
Project description:Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has proven to be a highly informative technique for the characterization of lipids from cells and tissues. We report the combination of hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with traveling-wave IM-MS (TWIM-MS) for comprehensive lipidomics analysis. Main lipid categories such as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, and glycerophospholipids are separated on the basis of their lipid backbones in the IM dimension, whereas subclasses of each category are mostly separated on the basis of their headgroups in the HILIC dimension, demonstrating the orthogonality of HILIC and IM separations. Using our previously established lipid calibrants for collision cross-section (CCS) measurements in TWIM, we measured over 250 CCS values covering 12 lipid classes in positive and negative modes. The coverage of the HILIC-IM-MS method is demonstrated in the analysis of Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells exposed to benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) with C10 or C16 alkyl chains, which we have previously shown to affect gene expression related to cholesterol and lipid homeostasis. We found that BAC exposure resulted in significant changes to several lipid classes, including glycerides, sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines, and phosphatidylethanolamines. Our results indicate that BAC exposure modifies lipid homeostasis in a manner that is dependent upon the length of the BAC alkyl chain.
Project description:Hydrophilic interaction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UHPLC) allows the analysis of highly polar metabolites, providing complementary information to reversed-phase (RP) chromatography. By optimization of the preparation and analytical conditions in HILIC mode, HILIC-UHPLC/MS was applied for the global metabolic profiling of rat plasma samples generated in an experimental model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and the concomitant investigation of the protective effect of fluoxetine was also evaluated. Identification of plasma metabolic profiles indicated that significant changes in specific metabolites occurred after fluoxetine exposure, including increased phenylalanine, serine, acetyl-L-carnitine, carnitine and decreased creatine, betaine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, C16:0 LPC. Some novel biomarkers from this HILIC-UHPLC/MS approach were betaine, proline, tyrosine creatine and serine compared with the results of RP-UHPLC/MS. The complementary nature of this technique is confirmed and is on agreement with previously published studies.
Project description:A key challenge to investigations into the functional roles of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in biological systems is the difficulty in achieving sensitive, stable, and reproducible mass spectrometric analysis. GAGs are linear carbohydrates with domains that vary in the extent of sulfation, acetylation, and uronic acid epimerization. It is of particular importance to determine spatial and temporal variations of GAG domain structures in biological tissues. In order to analyze GAGs from tissue, it is useful to couple MS with an on-line separation system. The purposes of the separation system are both to remove components that inhibit GAG ionization and to enable the analysis of very complex mixtures. This contribution presents amide-silica hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) in a chip-based format for LC/MS of heparin, heparan sulfate (HS) GAGs. The chip interface yields robust performance in the negative ion mode that is essential for GAGs and other acidic glycan classes while the built-in trapping cartridge reduces background from the biological tissue matrix. The HILIC chromatographic separation is based on a combination of the glycan chain lengths and the numbers of hydrophobic acetate (Ac) groups and acidic sulfate groups. In summary, chip based amide-HILIC LC/MS is an enabling technology for GAG glycomics profiling.
Project description:An untargeted metabolomics strategy using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was developed in this work enabling the study of the coffee roasting process. Green coffee beans and coffee beans submitted to three different roasting degrees (light, medium, and strong) were analyzed. Chromatographic separation was carried out using water containing 10 mM ammonium formate with 0.2 % formic acid (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile containing 10 mM ammonium formate with 0.2 % formic acid (mobile phase B). A total of 93 molecular features were considered from which 31 were chosen as the most statistically significant using variable in the projection values. 13 metabolites were tentatively identified as potential biomarkers of the coffee roasting process using this metabolomic platform. Results obtained in this work were complementary to those achieved using orthogonal techniques such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) since only one metabolite was found to be common between HILIC-MS and RPLC-MS platforms (caffeoylshikimic acid isomer) and other between HILIC-MS and CE-MS platforms (choline). On the basis of these results, an untargeted metabolomics multiplatform is proposed in this work based on the integration of the three orthogonal techniques as a powerful tool to expand the coverage of the roasted coffee metabolome.
Project description:Aberrant glycosylation has been linked to many different cancer types. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a region of the brain that regulates the entrance of ions, diseases, toxins, and so on. However, in breast cancer metastasis, the BBB fails to prevent the crossing of the cancer cells into the brain. Here we present a study of identifying and quantifying the glycosylation of six breast and brain cancer cell lines using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and electrostatic repulsion liquid chromatography (ERLIC) enrichments and LC-MS/MS analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of N-linked glycosylation were performed by both enrichment techniques for individual and complementary comparison. Potential cancer glycopeptide biomarkers were identified and confirmed by chemometric and statistical evaluations. A total of 497 glycopeptides were characterized, of which 401 were common glycopeptides (80.6% overlap) identified from both enrichment techniques. HILIC enrichment yielded 320 statistically significant glycopeptides in 231BR relative to the other cell lines out of 494 unique glycopeptides, and sequential HILIC-ERLIC enrichment yielded 214 statistically significant glycopeptides in 231BR compared with the other cell lines out of 404 unique glycopeptides. The results provide the first comprehensive glycopeptide listing for these six cell lines.
Project description:Dynamic 13C-tracer-based flux analyses of in vivo reaction networks still require a continuous development of advanced quantification methods applying state-of-the-art mass spectrometry platforms. Utilizing alkaline HILIC chromatography, we adapt strategies for a systematic quantification study in non- and 13C-labeled multicomponent endogenous Corynebacterium glutamicum extracts by LC-QTOF high resolution (HRMS) and LC-QQQ tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Without prior derivatization, a representative cross-section of 17 central carbon and anabolic key intermediates were analyzed with high selectivity and sensitivity under optimized ESI-MS settings. In column detection limits for the absolute quantification range were between 6.8-304.7 (QQQ) and 28.7-881.5 fmol (QTOF) with comparable linearities (3-5 orders of magnitude) and enhanced precision using QQQ-MRM detection. Tailor-made preparations of uniformly (U)13C-labeled cultivation extracts for isotope dilution mass spectrometry enabled the accurate quantification in complex sample matrices and extended linearities without effect on method parameters. Furthermore, evaluation of metabolite-specific m+1-to-m+0 ratios (ISR1:0) in non-labeled extracts exhibited sufficient methodical spectral accuracies with mean deviations of 3.89 ± 3.54% (QTOF) and 4.01 ± 3.01% (QQQ). Based on the excellent HILIC performance, conformity analysis of time-resolved isotopic enrichments in 13C-tracer experiments revealed sufficient spectral accuracy for QQQ-SIM detection. However, only QTOF-HRMS ensures determination of the full isotopologue space in complex matrices without mass interferences.