LC-MS/MS secretome analysis of Pleurotus ostreatus PC9 (wild type) and two transformants
ABSTRACT: The white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus was studied for its potential as a biological pretreatment agent, i.e- its potential for decomposing lignocellulosic biomass. P. ostreatus PC9 was manipulate to either overexpress or eliminate (by gene replacement) the transcriptional regulator CRE1, known to act as a repressor in the process of carbon catabolite repression. The parental PC9 and the two transformants were grown on microcrystalline cellulose and wheat straw (3 replicates each) and the content of the resulted secretomes was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. An extensive range of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) were affected by the modification of cre1 expression levels. The three fungi revealed also differentiation towards the carbon source used in the growth media.
Project description:Fungi are an important source of enzymes for saccharification of plant polysaccharides and production of biofuels. Understanding of the regulation and induction of expression of genes encoding these enzymes is still incomplete. To explore the induction mechanism, we analysed the response of the industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger to wheat straw, with a focus on events occurring shortly after exposure to the substrate. RNA sequencing showed that over a third of the genes induced after 6 h of exposure to wheat straw were also induced during 6 h of carbon starvation, indicating that carbon starvation is probably an important factor in the early response to wheat straw. The up-regulation of the expression of a high number of genes encoding CAZymes that are active on plant-derived carbohydrates during early carbon starvation suggests that these enzymes could be involved in a scouting role during starvation, releasing inducing sugars from complex plant polysaccharides. Eight samples in total consisting of duplicate shake flask Aspergillus niger cultures from four conditions: 48h glucose, 6 h starvation, 6 h wheat straw, 24 h starvation
Project description:Fungi are an important source of enzymes for saccharification of plant polysaccharides and production of biofuels. Understanding of the regulation and induction of expression of genes encoding these enzymes is still incomplete. To explore the induction mechanism, we analysed the response of the industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger to wheat straw, with a focus on events occurring shortly after exposure to the substrate. RNA sequencing showed that over a third of the genes induced after 6 h of exposure to wheat straw were also induced during 6 h of carbon starvation, indicating that carbon starvation is probably an important factor in the early response to wheat straw. The up-regulation of the expression of a high number of genes encoding CAZymes that are active on plant-derived carbohydrates during early carbon starvation suggests that these enzymes could be involved in a scouting role during starvation, releasing inducing sugars from complex plant polysaccharides. Overall design: Eight samples in total consisting of duplicate shake flask Aspergillus niger cultures from four conditions: 48h glucose, 6 h starvation, 6 h wheat straw, 24 h starvation
Project description:The basidiomycete white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa, a close relative of Gelatoporia (Ceriporiopsis) subvermispora, is an efficient degrader of softwood. The dikaryotic O. rivulosa strain T241i (FBCC949) has been shown to selectively remove lignin from spruce wood prior to depolymerization of plant cell wall polysaccharides, thus possessing potential in biotechnological applications such as pretreatment of wood in pulp and paper industry. In this work, we studied the time-course of the conversion of spruce by the genome-sequenced monokaryotic O. rivulosa strain 3A-2, which is derived from the dikaryon T241i, to get insights to transcriptome level changes during prolonged solid state cultivation. During 8-week cultivation, O. rivulosa expressed a constitutive set of genes encoding putative plant cell wall degrading enzymes. High level of expression of the genes targeted towards all plant cell wall polymers was detected at 2-week time point, after which majority of the genes showed reduced expression. This implicated non-selective degradation of lignin by the O. rivulosa monokaryon. These results suggest high variation between mono- and dikaryotic strains of the white-rot fungi with respect to their abilities to convert plant cell wall polymers. Overall design: The aim of the study is to study nutritional demands during a prolonged cultivation on wood by looking at the transcriptome at different time points, with special interes at CAZymes and central carbon metabolic genes. Obba rivulosa 3 A-2 growing on its natural substrate, spruce wood sticks was studied after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of solid state cultivation in order to follow wood depolymerization in more natural like conditions.
Project description:Background: Saprobic fungi are the predominant industrial sources of Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZymes) used for the saccharification of lignocellulose during the production of second generation biofuels. The production of more effective enzyme cocktails is a key objective for efficient biofuel production. To achieve this objective, it is crucial to understand the response of fungi to lignocellulose substrates. Our previous study used RNA-seq to identify the genes induced in Aspergillus niger in response to wheat straw, a biofuel feedstock, and showed that the range of genes induced was greater than previously seen with simple inducers [GSE33852]. Results: In this work we used RNA-seq to identify the genes induced in A. niger in response to short rotation coppice willow and compared this with the response to wheat straw from our previous study, at the same time-point. The response to willow showed a large increase in expression of genes encoding CAZymes. Genes encoding the major activities required to saccharify lignocellulose were induced on willow such as endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases. The transcriptome response to willow had many similarities with the response to straw with some significant differences in the expression levels of individual genes which are discussed in relation to differences in substrate composition or other factors. Differences in transcript levels include higher levels on wheat straw from genes encoding enzymes classified as members of GH62 (an arabinofuranosidase) and CE1 (a feruloyl esterase) CAZy families whereas two genes encoding endoglucanases classified as members of the GH5 family had higher transcript levels when exposed to willow. There were changes in the cocktail of enzymes secreted by A. niger when cultured with willow or straw. Assays for particular enzymes as well as saccharification assays were used to compare the enzyme activities of the cocktails. Wheat straw induced an enzyme cocktail that saccharified wheat straw to a greater extent than willow. Genes not encoding CAZymes were also induced on willow such as hydrophobins as well as genes of unknown function. Several genes were identified as promising targets for future study. Conclusions: By comparing this first study of the global transcriptional response of a fungus to willow with the response to straw, we have shown that the inducing lignocellulosic substrate has a marked effect upon the range of transcripts and enzymes expressed by A. niger. The use by industry of complex substrates such as wheat straw or willow could benefit efficient biofuel production. Six samples in total consisting of duplicate shake flask Aspergillus niger cultures from three conditions: glucose 48 h, willow 24 h, willow 24 h + glucose 5 h
Project description:Volvariella volvacea is one of a few commercial cultivated mushrooms mainly using straw as carbon source. In this study, the genome of V. volcacea was sequenced and assembled. A total of 286 genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in V. volvacea were identified and annotated. Among 15 fungi with sequenced genomes, V. volvacea ranks the seventh in the number of genes encoding CAZymes. In addition, the composition of glycoside hydrolases in V. volcacea is dramatically different from other basidiomycetes: it is particularly rich in members of the glycoside hydrolase families GH10 (hemicellulose degradation) and GH43 (hemicellulose and pectin degradation), and the lyase families PL1, PL3 and PL4 (pectin degradation) but lacks families GH5b, GH11, GH26, GH62, GH93, GH115, GH105, GH9, GH53, GH32, GH74 and CE12. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles of 3 strains using 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE) reveals that 246 CAZyme genes were expressed even in potato destrose broth medium. Our data also showed that the formation of a heterokaryon strain could dramatically increase the expression of a number of genes which were poorly expressed in its parental homokaryon strains. Using the 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE), we compared the gene expression profiles among 2 homokaryotic V. volvacea strains PYd15 and PYd21, and one heterokaryotic strain H1521, which is a hybrid strain of PYd15 and PYd21.
Project description:Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is one of the most well studied fungi used in biotechnology industry. This fungus is today a paradigm for the comercial scale production of different plant cell wall degrading enzymes, mainly cellulases and hemicellulases. The objective of this study was to analyze the transcriptional profiling of T. reesei grown in presence of cellulose, sophorose and glucose as the carbon source using RNA-seq approach. T. reesei (QM9414) was grown in Mandels-Andreotti medium, supplemented with 1% of cellulose, 2% of glucose or 1mM of sophorose. The cultures were incubated on an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at 28°C for 24, 48 and 72 hours using cellulose as carbon source; for 24 and 48 hours with glucose as the carbon; and 2, 4 and 6 hours with sophorose as the carbon source. In the latter, the mycelium was previously grown on glycerol for 24 hours and then transferred to 20 mL of Mandels-Andreotti medium without peptone. All experiments were performed in three biological replicates. The resultant mycelia were collected by filtration, frozen and stored at -80°C until RNA extraction. After growth, total RNA was isolated from the mycelia using TRIzol® reagent. RNA-seq experiments were performed by LGC Genomics GmbH (Berlin/Germany) using the platform Illumina/HiSeq2000.
Project description:Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), induces substantial clinical responses for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells harboring EGFR activating mutations, but most of them invariably develop resistance. By generating a gefitinib resistance (PC9GR) from a human NSCLC-derived drug sensitive cell line (PC9), we studied differences of transcription dynamics between them by the aid of a computational decoupling of hidden regulatory signals from time course gene expression profiles. Given a collection of transcription factors (TFs) and their regulatory targets, the method captured temporally-synchronized shifts in evolving expression of target genes sharing each TF regulatory unit, and drew underlying regulatory signals. The analysis identified sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) as a key regulatory agent that facilitates the maintenance of drug tolerance, involving transcription controls of a G1-specific cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor whose expression was specifically elevated in PC9, but in turn, reduced in PC9GR Gefitinib-resistance cell line (PC9GR) was established derived from lung adenocarcinoma cell line PC9. PC9 cells and PC9GR cells were treated with the four different conditions, control (No treatment), EGF-treatment, gefitinib-treatment, and both gefitinib and EGF-treatment. In each condition, the gene expression was measured at 26 time points during 24 hrs.
Project description:Wood-degrading brown rot fungi are essential recyclers of plant biomass in forest ecosystems. Their efficient cellulolytic systems, which have potential biotechnological applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: lignocellulose oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polysaccharide hydrolysis by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Given that ROS are strongly oxidizing and non-selective, these two steps are likely segregated. A common hypothesis has been that brown rot fungi use a concentration gradient of chelated metal ions to confine ROS generation inside wood cell walls before enzymes can infiltrate. We examined an alternative: that lignocellulose-oxidation (LOX) components involved in ROS production are differentially expressed by brown rot fungi ahead of GH components. We used spatial mapping to resolve a temporal sequence in Postia placenta, sectioning thin wood wafers colonized directionally. Among sections, we measured gene expression by whole transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) and assayed relevant enzyme activities. We found a marked pattern of LOX upregulation in a narrow (5-mm; 48-hr) zone at the hyphal front, which included many genes likely involved in ROS generation. Upregulation of GH5 endoglucanases and many other GHs clearly occurred later, behind the hyphal front, with notable exceptions of two likely expansins and a GH28 pectinase. Our results support a staggered mechanism for brown rot that is controlled by differential expression rather than microenvironmental gradients. This mechanism likely results in an oxidative pretreatment of lignocellulose, possibly facilitated by expansin- and pectinase-assisted cell wall swelling, before cellulases and hemicellulases are deployed for polysaccharide depolymerization. We sequenced mRNA from 9 Postia placenta samples taken from 3 wood sections of wafer design, with 3 bioreplicates for each wood section, to compare the gene expression during brown rot processes. Three wood sections of the wafer are representing early to late decay stages.
Project description:Wood-degrading fungi play a critical role in global carbon cycling, and their varied mechanisms for deconstruction offer pathways for industrial bioconversion. In this study, we used comparative genomics to isolate upregulation patterns among fungi with brown rot (carbohydrate-selective) or white rot (lignin-degrading) nutritional modes. Specifically, we used whole-transcriptome profiling to compare early, middle, and late decay stages on wood wafers, matching differentially-expressed gene (DEG) patterns with fungal growth and enzyme activities. This approach highlighted 34 genes uniquely upregulated in early brown rot stages, with notable candidates involved in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a pretreatment mechanism during brown rot. This approach further isolated 18 genes in late brown rot stages that may be adapted to handle oxidatively-reacted lignocellulose components. By summing gene expression levels in functional classes, we also identified a broad and reliable distinction in glycoside hydrolase (GH) versus lignocellulose oxidative (LOX) transcript counts that may reflect the energy investment burden of lignin-degrading machinery among white rot fungi. Overall design: We sequenced mRNA from 36 samples, including two brown rot and two white rot fungi, to compare the gene regulations of these two typical wood decay strategies. Each specie was used to colonize wood wafer directionally, a space for time experimental design for study wood decay successions. Then, 3 wood sections on wood wafer were sampled for RNA extraction, representing early to late decay stages, with 3 bioreplicates for each wood section for each specie.