K48 ubiquitin selectively targets oxidized proteins in vivo
ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein responsible for regulating a variety of functions when conjugated to target proteins. Ubiquitin is essential, accumulates during the stress response, and is the canonical signal for protein degradation by the proteasome. Still, the function of ubiquitin in response to oxidative stress, particularly in the removal of oxidized proteins remains elusive because of the number of potential targets and different roles that polyubiquitin chains can play. Since polyubiquitin chains linked by K48 ubiquitin are the most abundant and canonical signal for protein degradation, we investigated the roles of K48 ubiquitin in the degradation of oxidized proteins. Combining protein oxidation, linkage-specific ubiquitination screens, and quantitative proteomics, we found K48 ubiquitin accumulated in a bimodal fashion, at both the early and late phase of response. We further showed that a fraction of oxidized proteins are conjugated with K48 ubiquitin in vivo. Using quantitative proteomics we identified ~750 ubiquitinated proteins and ~400 oxidized proteins that were differentially modified during the stress response, and around half the proteins were both oxidized and ubiquitinated. These proteins were highly abundant and function in translation and energy metabolism. Finally, we showed that the ubiquitination system is required for degradation of oxidized proteins, suggesting that oxidized proteins that rapidly accumulate during stress are ubiquitinated, and degraded during the later recovery phase. This temporal disconnect may be necessary for reprogramming protein dynamics, restoring proteostasis, and resuming cell growth.
Project description:All seven lysine residues in ubiquitin contribute to the synthesis of polyubiquitin chains on protein substrates. Whereas K48-linked chains are well established as mediators of proteasomal degradation, and K63-linked chains act in nonproteolytic events, the roles of unconventional polyubiquitin chains linked through K6, K11, K27, K29, or K33 are not well understood. Here, we report that the unconventional linkages are abundant in vivo and that all non-K63 linkages may target proteins for degradation. Ubiquitin with K48 as the single lysine cannot support yeast viability, and different linkages have partially redundant functions. By profiling both the entire yeast proteome and ubiquitinated proteins in wild-type and ubiquitin K11R mutant strains using mass spectrometry, we identified K11 linkage-specific substrates, including Ubc6, a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Ubc6 primarily synthesizes K11-linked chains, and K11 linkages function in the ERAD pathway. Thus, unconventional polyubiquitin chains are critical for ubiquitin-proteasome system function.
Project description:A20 has been suggested to limit NF-?B activation by removing regulatory ubiquitin chains from ubiquitinated substrates. A20 is a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that removes K63-linked ubiquitin chains from adaptor proteins, such as RIP1, and then conjugates them to K48-linked polyubiquitin chains to trigger proteasomal degradation. To determine the role of the deubiquitinase function of A20 in downregulating NF-?B signaling, we have generated a knock-in mouse that lacks the deubiquitinase function of A20 (A20-OTU mice). These mice are normal and have no signs of inflammation, have normal proportions of B, T, dendritic, and myeloid cells, respond normally to LPS and TNF, and undergo normal NF-?B activation. Our results thus indicate that the deubiquitinase activity of A20 is dispensable for normal NF-?B signaling.
Project description:Although cellular proteins conjugated to K48-linked Ub chains are targeted to proteasomes, proteins conjugated to K63-ubiquitin chains are directed to lysosomes. However, pure 26S proteasomes bind and degrade K48- and K63-ubiquitinated substrates similarly. Therefore, we investigated why K63-ubiquitinated proteins are not degraded by proteasomes. We show that mammalian cells contain soluble factors that selectively bind to K63 chains and inhibit or prevent their association with proteasomes. Using ubiquitinated proteins as affinity ligands, we found that the main cellular proteins that associate selectively with K63 chains and block their binding to proteasomes are ESCRT0 (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) and its components, STAM and Hrs. In vivo, knockdown of ESCRT0 confirmed that it is required to block binding of K63-ubiquitinated molecules to the proteasome. In addition, the Rad23 proteins, especially hHR23B, were found to bind specifically to K48-ubiquitinated proteins and to stimulate proteasome binding. The specificities of these proteins for K48- or K63-ubiquitin chains determine whether a ubiquitinated protein is targeted for proteasomal degradation or delivered instead to the endosomal-lysosomal pathway.
Project description:The first line of defense protecting rhesus macaques from HIV-1 is the restriction factor rhTRIM5α, which recognizes the capsid core of the virus early after entry and normally blocks infection prior to reverse transcription. Cytoplasmic bodies containing rhTRIM5α have been implicated in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, but the specific roles these structures play remain uncharacterized. Here, we examine the ubiquitination status of cytoplasmic body proteins. Using antibodies specific for different forms of ubiquitin, we show that ubiquitinated proteins are present in cytoplasmic bodies, and that this localization is altered after proteasome inhibition. A decrease in polyubiquitinated proteins localizing to cytoplasmic bodies was apparent after 1 h of proteasome inhibition, and greater differences were seen after extended proteasome inhibition. The decrease in polyubiquitin conjugates within cytoplasmic bodies was also observed when deubiquitinating enzymes were inhibited, suggesting that the removal of ubiquitin moieties from polyubiquitinated cytoplasmic body proteins after extended proteasome inhibition is not responsible for this phenomenon. Superresolution structured illumination microscopy revealed finer details of rhTRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies and the polyubiquitin conjugates that localize to these structures. Finally, linkage-specific polyubiquitin antibodies revealed that K48-linked ubiquitin chains localize to rhTRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies, implicating these structures in proteasomal degradation. Differential staining of cytoplasmic bodies seen with different polyubiquitin antibodies suggests that structural changes occur during proteasome inhibition that alter epitope availability. Taken together, it is likely that rhTRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies are involved in recruiting components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to coordinate proteasomal destruction of a viral or cellular protein(s) during restriction of HIV-1.
Project description:The emergence of Variola virus-like viruses by natural evolution of zoonotic Orthopoxviruses, like Cowpox virus (CPXV), is a global health threat. The proteasome is essential for poxvirus replication, making the viral components interacting with the ubiquitin-proteasome system attractive antiviral targets. We show that proteasome inhibition impairs CPXV replication by prevention of uncoating, suggesting that uncoating is mediated by proteasomal degradation of viral core proteins. Although Orthopoxvirus particles contain considerable amounts of ubiquitin, distinct modification sites are largely unknown. Therefore, for the first time, we analyzed globally ubiquitination sites in CPXV mature virion proteins using LC-MS/MS. Identification of 137 conserved sites in 54 viral proteins among five CPXV strains revealed extensive ubiquitination of structural core proteins. Moreover, since virions contained primarily K48-linked polyubiquitin, we hypothesized that core proteins are modified accordingly. However, quantitative analysis of ubiquitinated CPXV proteins early in infection showed no proteasomal degradation of core proteins. Instead, our data indicate that the recently suggested proteasomal regulation of the uncoating factor E5 is a prerequisite for uncoating. Expanding our understanding of poxvirus uncoating and elucidating a multitude of novel ubiquitination sites in poxvirus proteins, the present study verifies the major biological significance of ubiquitin in poxvirus infection.
Project description:The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) signals for degradation of proteins through attachment of K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, or alterations in protein-protein recognition through attachment of K63-linked chains. Target proteins are ubiquitinated in three sequential chemical steps by a three-component enzyme system. Ubiquitination, or E2 enzymes, catalyze the central step by facilitating reaction of a target protein lysine with the C-terminus of Ub that is attached to the active site cysteine of the E2 through a thioester bond. E2 reactivity is modulated by dynamics of an active site gate, whose central residue packs against the active site cysteine in a closed conformation. Interestingly, for the E2 Ubc13, which specifically catalyzes K63-linked ubiquitination, the central gate residue adopts an open conformation. We set out to determine if active site gate dynamics play a role in catalysis for E2-25K, which adopts the canonical, closed gate conformation, and which selectively synthesizes K48-linked ubiquitin chains. Gate dynamics were characterized using mutagenesis of key residues, combined with enzyme kinetics measurements, and main chain NMR relaxation. The experimental data were interpreted with all atom MD simulations. The data indicate that active site gate opening and closing rates for E2-25K are precisely balanced.
Project description:Several ubiquitin chain types have remained unstudied, mainly because tools and techniques to detect these posttranslational modifications are scarce. Linkage-specific antibodies have shaped our understanding of the roles and dynamics of polyubiquitin signals but are available for only five out of eight linkage types. We here characterize K6- and K33-linkage-specific "affimer" reagents as high-affinity ubiquitin interactors. Crystal structures of affimers bound to their cognate chain types reveal mechanisms of specificity and a K11 cross-reactivity in the K33 affimer. Structure-guided improvements yield superior affinity reagents suitable for western blotting, confocal fluorescence microscopy and pull-down applications. This allowed us to identify RNF144A and RNF144B as E3 ligases that assemble K6-, K11-, and K48-linked polyubiquitin in vitro. A protocol to enrich K6-ubiquitinated proteins from cells identifies HUWE1 as a main E3 ligase for this chain type, and we show that mitofusin-2 is modified with K6-linked polyubiquitin in a HUWE1-dependent manner.
Project description:Ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains target proteins for a wide variety of cellular processes. Ubiquitin-mediated targeting is regulated by the lysine through which the ubiquitins are linked as well as the broader ubiquitin landscape on the protein. The mechanisms of this regulation are not fully understood. For example, the canonical proteasome targeting signal is a lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chain, and the canonical endocytosis signal is a lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chain. However, lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains can also target substrates for degradation. Biochemical studies of ubiquitinated proteins have been limited by the difficulty of building proteins with well-defined polyubiquitin chains. Here we describe an efficient and versatile method for synthesizing ubiquitin chains of defined linkage and length. The synthesized ubiquitin chains are then attached to any protein containing a ubiquitin moiety. These proteins can be used to study ubiquitin targeting in in vitro assays in the tightly controlled manner required for biochemical studies.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, proteins are targeted to the proteasome for degradation by polyubiquitination. These proteins bind to ubiquitin receptors, are engaged and unfolded by proteasomal ATPases, and are processively degraded. The factors determining to what extent the proteasome can successfully unfold and degrade a substrate are still poorly understood. We find that the architecture of polyubiquitin chains attached to a substrate affects the ability of the proteasome to unfold and degrade the substrate, with K48- or mixed-linkage chains leading to greater processivity than K63-linked chains. Ubiquitin-independent targeting of substrates to the proteasome gave substantially lower processivity of degradation than ubiquitin-dependent targeting. Thus, even though ubiquitin chains are removed early in degradation, during substrate engagement, remarkably they dramatically affect the later unfolding of a protein domain. Our work supports a model in which a polyubiquitin chain associated with a substrate switches the proteasome into an activated state that persists throughout the degradation process.
Project description:The overexpressed ErbB2/HER2 receptor is a clinically validated cancer target whose surface localization and internalization mechanisms remain poorly understood. Downregulation of the overexpressed 185-kDa ErbB2 receptor is rapidly (2-6 hours) induced by the HSP90 chaperone inhibitor geldanamycin (GA), whereas its downregulation and lysosomal degradation are more slowly (24 hours) induced by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib/PS341. In PS341-treated SK-BR-3 cells, overexpressed ErbB2 coprecipitates with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl and also with the deubiquitinating enzyme USP9x; moreover, siRNA downregulation of USP9x enhances PS341-induced ErbB2 downregulation. Because polyubiquitin linkages via lysine 48 (K48) or 63 (K63) can differentially address proteins for 26S proteasomal degradation or endosome trafficking to the lysosome, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)/mass spectrometry (MS) and polyubiquitin linkage-specific antibodies were used to quantitatively track K48-linked and K63-linked ErbB2 polyubiquitination following either GA or PS341 treatment of SK-BR-3 cells. MRM/MS revealed that unlike the rapid, modest (4-fold to 8-fold), and synchronous GA induction of K48 and K63 polyubiquitinated ErbB2, PS341 produces a dramatic (20-fold to 40-fold) sequential increase in polyubiquitinated ErbB2 consistent with K48 polyubiquitination followed by K63 editing. Fluorescence microscopic imaging confirmed that PS341, but not GA, induces colocalization of K48-linked and K63-linked polyubiquitin with perinuclear lysosome-sequestered ErbB2. Thus, ErbB2 surface overexpression and recycling seem to depend on its polyubiquitination and deubiquitination; as well, the contrasting effects of PS341 and GA on ErbB2 receptor localization, polyubiquitination, and degradation point to alternate cytoplasmic trafficking likely regulated by different K48 and K63 polyubiquitin editing mechanisms.