DCas9 targeted chromatin and histone enrichment for mass spectrometry (Catchet-MS) identifies IKZF1 as a novel target for HIV-1 latency reversal
ABSTRACT: HIV-1 infected patients virally suppressed by antiviral treatment harbor a persistent reservoir of replication competent latent HIV-1 infected cells, which constitute the main roadblock to a cure. A main strategy for HIV cure aims to stimulate viral gene expression in latently infected cells so that they can be cleared. Crucial for the design of drugs referred to as “latency-reversing agents” (LRAs) is the identification of molecular targets for latency reversal. The regulatory factors physically associated with and repressing the latent HIV-1 promoter or 5’LTR would provide ideal putative molecular targets for latency reversal. However, due to technical limitations, the comprehensive and unbiased identification of host proteins associated with the latent or active integrated HIV LTR in infected cells not been possible. Here we use dCas9 targeted chromatin and histone enrichment strategy coupled to mass spectrometry (Catchet-MS), to purify the locus-associated dCas9 bait, guided downstream of the HIV-1 transcriptional start site (TSS) in latent and activated HIV-1 infected T cells to identify the 5’LTR bound latent and active regulatory complexes. Catchet-MS identified both previously described as well as novel host factors distinctly associated with the latent versus transcriptionally active HIV-1 5’LTR. Within the identified factors we find the transcription factor IKZF1 to be a novel repressor of the HIV-1 promoter required for maintenance of latency, and thus a molecular target for latency reversal. Finally, we identify the FDA approved drug, Iberdomide, which targets IKZF1 for degradation to be a novel LRA, which reversed latency in latent ex vivo HIV-1 infected primary CD4+ T cells and in cells isolated from HIV-1 infected, aviremic participants.
Project description:To identify novel host factors as putative targets to reverse HIV-1 latency, we performed an insertional mutagenesis genetic screen in a latent HIV-1 infected pseudohaploid KBM7 cell line (Hap-Lat). Following mutagenesis, insertions were mapped to the genome, and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of 69 candidate host genes involved in maintaining HIV-1 latency. A select set of candidate genes was functionally validated using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated depletion in latent HIV-1 infected J-Lat A2 and 11.1 T cell lines. We confirmed ADK, CHD9, CMSS1, EVI2B, EXOSC8, FAM19A, GRIK5, IRF2BP2, NF1, and USP15 as novel host factors involved in the maintenance of HIV-1 latency. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that CHD9, a chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein, maintains HIV-1 latency via direct association with the HIV-1 5' long terminal repeat (LTR), and its depletion results in increased histone acetylation at the HIV-1 promoter, concomitant with HIV-1 latency reversal. FDA-approved inhibitors 5-iodotubercidin, trametinib, and topiramate, targeting ADK, NF1, and GRIK5, respectively, were characterized for their latency reversal potential. While 5-iodotubercidin exhibited significant cytotoxicity in both J-Lat and primary CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, trametinib reversed latency in J-Lat cells but not in latent HIV-1 infected primary CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells. Importantly, topiramate reversed latency in cell line models, in latently infected primary CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, and crucially in CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells from three people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) under suppressive antiretroviral therapy, without inducing T cell activation or significant toxicity. Thus, using an adaptation of a haploid forward genetic screen, we identified novel and druggable host factors contributing to HIV-1 latency. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> A reservoir of latent HIV-1 infected cells persists in the presence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), representing a major obstacle for viral eradication. Reactivation of the latent HIV-1 provirus is part of curative strategies which aim to promote clearance of the infected cells. Using a two-color haploid screen, we identified 69 candidate genes as latency-maintaining host factors and functionally validated a subset of 10 of those in additional T-cell-based cell line models of HIV-1 latency. We further demonstrated that CHD9 is associated with HIV-1's promoter, the 5' LTR, while this association is lost upon reactivation. Additionally, we characterized the latency reversal potential of FDA compounds targeting ADK, NF1, and GRIK5 and identify the GRIK5 inhibitor topiramate as a viable latency reversal agent with clinical potential.
Project description:Persistence of latently infected cells in presence of Anti-Retroviral Therapy presents the main obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Much effort is thus placed on identification of compounds capable of HIV-1 latency reversal in order to render infected cells susceptible to viral cytopathic effects and immune clearance. We identified the BAF chromatin remodeling complex as a key player required for maintenance of HIV-1 latency, highlighting its potential as a molecular target for inhibition in latency reversal. Here, we screened a recently identified panel of small molecule inhibitors of BAF (BAFi's) for potential to activate latent HIV-1. Latency reversal was strongly induced by BAFi's Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Pyrimethamine, two molecules previously characterized for clinical application. BAFi's reversed HIV-1 latency in cell line based latency models, in two ex vivo infected primary cell models of latency, as well as in HIV-1 infected patient's CD4 + T cells, without inducing T cell proliferation or activation. BAFi-induced HIV-1 latency reversal was synergistically enhanced upon PKC pathway activation and HDAC-inhibition. Therefore BAFi's constitute a promising family of molecules for inclusion in therapeutic combinatorial HIV-1 latency reversal.
Project description:<h4>Purpose of review</h4>For most people living with HIV (PLWH), treatment with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in suppression of viremia below the limit of detection of clinical assays, immune reconstitution, reduced immune activation, avoidance of opportunistic infections, and progression to AIDS. However, ART alone is not curative, and HIV persists in a non-replicating, latent form. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on non-specific latency reversal approaches (LRA 1.0) and summarize recent advances in latency reversal strategies that target specific signaling pathways within CD4+ T cells or other immune cells to induce expression of latent HIV (immune-based latency reversal, or LRA 2.0).<h4>Recent findings</h4>The HIV reservoir is primarily composed of latently infected CD4+ T cells carrying integrated, replication-competent provirus that can give rise to rebound viremia if ART is stopped. Myeloid lineage cells also contribute to HIV latency in certain tissues; we focus here on CD4+ T cells as a sufficient body of evidence regarding latency reversal in myeloid cells is lacking. The immunomodulatory LRA 2.0 approaches we describe include pattern recognition receptor agonists, immune checkpoint inhibitors, non-canonical NF-kB stimulation, and transient CD8+ lymphocyte depletion, along with promising combination strategies. We highlight recent studies demonstrating robust latency reversal in nonhuman primate models. While significant strides have been made in terms of virus reactivation from latency, initial hopes for latency reversal alone to result in a reduction of infected cells, through viral cytopathic effect or an unboosted immune system, have not been realized and it seems clear that even effective latency reversal strategies will need to be paired with an approach that facilitates immune recognition and clearance of cells containing reactivated virus.
Project description:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of proviruses in long-lived resting T cells. Strategies targeting these latently infected cells will be necessary to eradicate HIV-1 in infected individuals. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation is an effective mechanism to reactivate latent proviruses and allows for recognition and clearance of infected cells by the immune system. Several ingenol compounds, naturally occurring PKC agonists, have been described to have potent latency reversal activity. We sought to optimize this activity by synthesizing a library of novel ingenols via esterification of the C-3 hydroxyl group of the ingenol core, which itself is inactive for latency reversal. Newly synthesized ingenol derivatives were evaluated for latency reversal activity, cellular activation, and cytotoxicity alongside commercially available ingenols (ingenol-3,20-dibenzoate, ingenol 3-hexanoate, and ingenol-3-angelate) in HIV latency cell lines and resting CD4+ T cells from aviremic participants. Among the synthetic ingenols that we produced, we identified several compounds that demonstrate high efficacy and represent promising leads as latency reversal agents for HIV-1 eradication.
Project description:The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) can increase HIV RNA expression in vivo within resting CD4+ T cells of aviremic HIV+ individuals. However, while studies of VOR or other HDAC inhibitors have reported reversal of latency, none has demonstrated clearance of latent infection. We sought to identify the optimal dosing of VOR for effective serial reversal of HIV latency.In a study of 16 HIV-infected, aviremic individuals, we measured resting CD4+ T cell-associated HIV RNA ex vivo and in vivo following a single exposure to VOR, and then in vivo after a pair of doses separated by 48 or 72 hours, and finally following a series of 10 doses given at 72-hour intervals.Serial VOR exposures separated by 72 hours most often resulted in an increase in cell-associated HIV RNA within circulating resting CD4+ T cells. VOR was well tolerated by all participants. However, despite serial reversal of latency over 1 month of VOR dosing, we did not observe a measurable decrease (>0.3 log10) in the frequency of latent infection within resting CD4+ T cells.These findings outline parameters for the experimental use of VOR to clear latent infection. Latency reversal can be achieved by VOR safely and repeatedly, but effective depletion of persistent HIV infection will require additional advances. In addition to improvements in latency reversal, these advances may include the sustained induction of potent antiviral immune responses capable of recognizing and clearing the rare cells in which HIV latency has been reversed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01319383.NIH grants U01 AI095052, AI50410, and P30 CA016086 and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences grant KL2 TR001109.
Project description:Cells that are latently infected with HIV-1 preclude an HIV-1 cure, as antiretroviral therapy does not target this latent population. HIV-1 is highly genetically diverse, with over 10 subtypes and numerous recombinant forms circulating worldwide. In spite of this vast diversity, much of our understanding of latency and latency reversal is largely based on subtype B viruses. As such, most of the development of cure strategies targeting HIV-1 are solely based on subtype B. It is currently assumed that subtype does not influence the establishment or reactivation of latent viruses. However, this has not been conclusively proven one way or the other. A better understanding of the factors that influence HIV-1 latency in all viral subtypes will help develop therapeutic strategies that can be applied worldwide. Here, we review the latest literature on subtype-specific factors that affect viral replication, pathogenesis, and, most importantly, latency and its reversal.
Project description:During antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) persists as a latent reservoir in CD4+ T cell subsets in central memory (TCM), transitional memory (TTM), and effector memory (TEM) CD4+ T cells. We have identified differences in mechanisms underlying latency and responses to latency-reversing agents (LRAs) in ex vivo CD4+ memory T cells from virally suppressed HIV-infected individuals and in an in vitro primary cell model of HIV-1 latency. Our ex vivo and in vitro results demonstrate the association of transcriptional pathways of T cell differentiation, acquisition of effector function, and cell cycle entry in response to LRAs. Analyses of memory cell subsets showed that effector memory pathways and cell surface markers of activation and proliferation in the TEM subset are predictive of higher frequencies of cells carrying an inducible reservoir. Transcriptional profiling also demonstrated that the epigenetic machinery (known to control latency and reactivation) in the TEM subset is associated with frequencies of cells with HIV-integrated DNA and inducible HIV multispliced RNA. TCM cells were triggered to differentiate into TEM cells when they were exposed to LRAs, and this increase of TEM subset frequencies upon LRA stimulation was positively associated with higher numbers of p24+ cells. Together, these data highlight differences in underlying biological latency control in different memory CD4+ T cell subsets which harbor latent HIV in vivo and support a role for differentiation into a TEM phenotype in facilitating latency reversal.IMPORTANCE By performing phenotypic analysis of latency reversal in CD4+ T cells from virally suppressed individuals, we identify the TEM subset as the largest contributor to the inducible HIV reservoir. Differential responses of memory CD4+ T cell subsets to latency-reversing agents (LRAs) demonstrate that HIV gene expression is associated with heightened expression of transcriptional pathways associated with differentiation, acquisition of effector function, and cell cycle entry. In vitro modeling of the latent HIV reservoir in memory CD4+ T cell subsets identify LRAs that reverse latency with ranges of efficiency and specificity. We found that therapeutic induction of latency reversal is associated with upregulation of identical sets of TEM-associated genes and cell surface markers shown to be associated with latency reversal in our ex vivo and in vitro models. Together, these data support the idea that the effector memory phenotype supports HIV latency reversal in CD4+ T cells.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a chronic condition, where viral DNA integrates into the genome. Latently infected cells form a persistent, heterogeneous reservoir that at any time can reactivate the integrated HIV-1. Here we confirmed that latently infected cells from HIV-1 positive study participants exhibited active HIV-1 transcription but without production of mature spliced mRNAs. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this we employed primary HIV-1 latency models to study latency establishment and maintenance. We characterized proviral transcription and chromatin development in cultures of resting primary CD4+ T-cells for four months after ex vivo HIV-1 infection. As heterochromatin (marked with H3K9me3 or H3K27me3) gradually stabilized, the provirus became less accessible with reduced activation potential. In a subset of infected cells, active marks (e.g. H3K27ac) and elongating RNAPII remained detectable at the latent provirus, despite prolonged proviral silencing. In many aspects, latent HIV-1 resembled an active enhancer in a subset of resting cells. The enhancer chromatin actively promoted latency and the enhancer-specific CBP/P300-inhibitor GNE049 was identified as a new latency reversal agent. The division of the latent reservoir according to distinct chromatin compositions with different reactivation potential enforces the notion that even though a relatively large set of cells contains the HIV-1 provirus, only a discrete subset is readily able to reactivate the provirus and spread the infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During combined anti-retroviral treatment, a latent HIV reservoir persists within resting memory CD4 T cells that initiates viral recrudescence upon treatment interruption. Strategies for HIV-1 cure have largely focused on latency reversing agents (LRAs) capable of reactivating and eliminating this viral reservoir. Previously investigated LRAs have largely failed to achieve a robust latency reversal sufficient for reduction of latent HIV pool or the potential of virus-free remission in the absence of treatment. METHODS:We utilize a polyvalent virus-like particle (VLP) formulation called Activator Vector (ACT-VEC) to 'shock' provirus into transcriptional activity. Ex vivo co-culture experiments were used to evaluate the efficacy of ACT-VEC in relation to other LRAs in individuals diagnosed and treated during the acute stage of infection. IFN-? ELISpot, qRT-PCR and Illumina MiSeq were used to evaluate antigenicity, latency reversal, and diversity of induced virus respectively. FINDINGS:Using samples from HIV+ patients diagnosed and treated at acute/early infection, we demonstrate that ACT-VEC can reverse latency in HIV infected CD4 T cells to a greater extent than other major recall antigens as stimuli or even mitogens such as PMA/Iono. Furthermore, ACT-VEC activates more latent HIV-1 than clinically tested HDAC inhibitors or protein kinase C agonists. INTERPRETATION:Taken together, these results show that ACT-VEC can induce HIV reactivation from latently infected CD4 T cells collected from participants on first line combined antiretroviral therapy for at least two years after being diagnosed and treated at acute/early stage of infection. These findings could provide guidance to possible targeted cure strategies and treatments. FUNDING:NIH and CIHR.
Project description:Therapeutic strategies that target the latent HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells of infected individuals are always administered in the presence of combination antiretroviral therapy. Using a primary cell of HIV-1 latency, we evaluated whether different antiviral drug classes affected latency reversal (as assessed by extracellular virus production) by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies or bryostatin 1. We found that the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors efavirenz and rilpivirine significantly decreased HIV-1 production, by ?1 log.