Transcription profiling by array of livers from type 2 diabetes KKAy mice treated with insulin, intranuclear biomineralized insulin against untreated controls
ABSTRACT: There is evidence indicating the involvement of DNA methylation memory in maintaining gene expression patterns associated with insulin resistance. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it has been proved that insulin resistance is correlated to low heat shock protein (HSP) expression. We reveal that intranuclear insulin can reduce HSP DNA methylation level to up-regulate HSP protein expression and result in long term cure of hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes KKAy mouse were selected in our experiments.Three conditions were compared with three replicates each. These are:(1) Untreated KKAy mouse (2) Insulin treated KKAy mouse(Insulin); (3) Biomineralized insulin treated KKAy mouse(BI).
Project description:There is evidence indicating the involvement of DNA methylation memory in maintaining gene expression patterns associated with insulin resistance. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it has been proved that insulin resistance is correlated to low heat shock protein (HSP) expression. We reveal that intranuclear insulin can reduce HSP DNA methylation level to up-regulate HSP protein expression and result in long term cure of hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes KKAy mouse were selected in our experiments.Three conditions were compared with three replicates each. These are:(1) Untreated KKAy mouse (2) Insulin treated KKAy mouse(Insulin); (3) Biomineralized insulin treated KKAy mouse(BI).
Project description:Chinese medicine is a complex system guided by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theories, which has proven to be especially effective in treating chronic and complex diseases. However, the underlying modes of action (MOA) are not always systematically investigated. Herein, a systematic study was designed to elucidate the multi-compound, multi-target and multi-pathway MOA of a Chinese medicine ,QSYQ, on myocardial infarction. Male Sprague Dawley rat model of myocardial infarction were administered QSYQ intragastrically for 7 days while the control group was not treated. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from myocardial infarction rat model treated with QSYQ, followed by constructing a cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related multilevel compound-target-pathway network connecting main compounds to those DEGs supported by literature evidences and the pathways that are functionally enriched. Three conditions were compared with three replicates each: (1) sham, i.e. without left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation; (2) model, with LAD ligation; (3) QSYQ, with LAD ligation and treated with QSYQ intragastrically for 7 days, the dosage was 105.6 mg/kg once a day. Rats were sacrificed after 7 days of i.g. administration under 10% chloral hydrate anesthesia (300mg/kg). Three tissue samples on the border between infarct and non-infarct area were dissected from left ventricles of each group. The tissue samples were stored at -80℃ refrigerator. Total RNA was extracted using TRIZol Reagent (Invitrogen) and purified using RNeasy Mini kit (QIAGEN), following manufacturers’ protocols. RNA quality was evaluated using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and electrophoresis in 2% (w/v) agarose gels. Only RNA with RNA integrity numbers (RINs) greater than 7.0 and 28SrRNA/18S rRNA ratio greater than 0.7 was used for microarray analyses. Whole genome microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix rat Genome 230 2.0 chips.
Project description:Gene Expression Profiling of Severed Rat Medial Collateral Ligament at 1, 2, 4, 7,1 0, and 14 days Following Injury with Control and Cultured Ligament Fibroblasts and Rat Universal Reference RNA; The aim of this study was to assess the genes involved in the repair of the the dense connective tissue of the a rat ligament in order to provide targets for improvement in healing. Rat whole genome microarrays (Agilent) were used in this study and Cy3 and Cy5 labeled total RNA was extracted and labeled with Cy3 or Cy5 prior to fragmentation and hybridization. Experiment Overall Design: To conserve microarrays to allow maximum replicates, two samples either Cy3 or Cy5 labeled were hybridized to each microarry. Total RNA from each rat medial collateral ligament was labeled and hybrided to a microarray. The fluorescence intensity for each column minus the background was extracted from each microarray for submission to BRB Array tools for statistical analysis.
Project description:We characterized the insulin sensitivity and multi-tissue gene expression profiles of lean and insulin resistant, obese Zucker rats untreated or treated with one of four PPARγ ligands (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, troglitazone, and AG035029). We analyzed the transcriptional profiles of adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver from the rats and determined whether ligand insulin-sensitizing potency was related to ligand-induced alteration of functional pathways. Ligand treatments improved insulin sensitivity in obese rats, albeit to varying degrees. Male Zucker fatty (fa/fa) and lean (fa/+) rats (Charles River, Wilmington, MA) were received at 6 weeks of age. Fatty rats were weight-matched upon arrival and randomly divided into one of five experimental groups. The fatty rat groups varied by the type of chow they were fed - normal chow alone or with a PPARγ ligand admixture: normal chow (fatty control, FC), rosiglitazone-treated (Rosi), pioglitazone-treated (Pio), troglitazone-treated (Tro), or AG035029-treated (AG). Lean control (LC) rats were all fed normal chow. Rats groups were maintained on the diets for 21 days. Adipose tissue (epididymal), skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius), and liver were harvested from lean (LC) and insulin resistant, obese Zucker rats untreated (FC) or treated with one of four PPARγ ligands (pioglitazone [Pio], rosiglitazone [Rosi], troglitazone [Tro], and AG035029 [AG]).
Project description:In order to examine the mechanism of TPO on cardiac protection against myocardial infarction damage (MI), we have employed whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify genes with the potential to delineate the TPO cardioprotective mechanism against infarction. MI and TPO induced gene expressions in rat heart were measured at week 4. Two biological replicates were performed for each treatment group.
Project description:MicroRNAs are important cellular components and their dysfunctions are associated with various disease. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most serious cardiovascular diseases. Although several miRNAs have been reported to be associated with AMI, more novel miRNAs are needed to be investigated to ascertain if they are associated with AMI. SD rats (180-200g) was divided into sham-control group and two days group after AMI, seven days group after AMI, fourteen days group after AMI, each group has six individual animals total RNA was taken from the border-zone myocardium , low molecular weight RNA was seperate and labeled , and then hybridized to capitalbio V2 biochip representing about 924 microRNA . three chip were test in each group, and the procedure was repeated twice.
Project description:N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAr), widely located around the central nervous system, are known to be involved in behavioral disorders. Dizocilpine (commonly referred to as MK-801) is a well known non-competitive NMDAr antagonist. We treated rats with intraperitoneal injection [0.08 (low-dose) and 0.16 (high-dose) mg/kg] of MK-801. In one experiment, 40 min after NaCl (vehicle control) and MK-801 (0.08 mg/kg) injection, electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals were analyzed. In the second experiment, 40 min post-injection, the whole brain of each animal was rapidly removed and separated into amyglada, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain and ventral striatum) on ice, followed by analysis using a 4x44K DNA microarray chip. Spectral analysis revealed that a single systemic injection of MK-801 significantly and selectively augmented the power of baseline (30-80 Hz) frequency oscillations. DNA microarray analysis showed the largest number (up- and down- regulations) of gene expressions in the cerebral cortex (378), midbrain (376), hippocampus (375), ventral striatum (353), amygdala (301), and hypothalamus (201) under low-dose of MK-801. Under high-dose, ventral striatum (811) showed the largest number of gene expression changes. Gene expression changes were functionally categorized to reveal expression of genes and function varies with each brain region. MK-801 increases the synchrony of baseline oscillations, causing very early changes in gene expressions in rat brain after acute MK-801 treatment, a first report. The overall goal of the present study was to identify gene expression patterns along rat chromosomes in different brain regions after a single injection of MK-801, which exerts a longer acute effect than ketamine on ongoing brain activities. Two approaches were taken, first electrophysiological and send molecular analysis, where the brain of MK-801-treated rats was subjected to a genome-wide transcriptome mapping analysis (~4400 genes) in the cerebral cortex, midbrain, hippocampus, ventral striatum, amygdala, and hypothalamus regions.
Project description:Androgens are required for prostate development, growth and physiology, by activating the androgen receptor (AR) upon activation by testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the AR undergoes conformational changes, dimerizes and translocates to the cell nucleus regulation important genes releted to cell survival. Understanding the mechanisms of androgen regulation in the prostate gland is important, because the prostate is affected by several different diseases, in particular prostate cancer (PCa). Several ways exist to treat prostate cancer and promote epithelial cell death. Treatments involving androgen manipulation include surgical castration (bilateral orchiectomy), antiandrogens (usually AR antagonists), or substances that inhibit androgen synthesis (5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone blockers). 17 beta-estradiol exerts anti-androgen effects by blocking the hypothalamic production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thereby inhibiting the production of testosterone by the testes , but also acts locally via interactions with either of the estrogen receptors found in the gland. It is known that the kinetics of apoptosis are different in the rat ventral prostate (VP) of castrated rats (Cas group) and in rats subjected to 17 beta-estradiol high dose (group E2) or their combination (group Cas+E2), with an evident additive effect in the latter situation (Garcia-Florez et al, 2005). The microarray approach was done to figure out what genes are expressed and how the cells of ventral prostate gland responses when the androgen is not available comparing three diferent androgen deprivation methods (sirurgical castration, high dose of 17-beta estradiol and both treatment combined). Forty-eight 21-day-old male Wistar rats were obtained from the Multidisciplinary Center for Biological Research (CEMIB), University of Campinas. The animals were kept under normal light conditions (12-h light:dark cycle) and received filtered tap water and Purina rodent chow ad libitum. On the 90th day after birth, the rats were divided in four groups (n=3) and assigned to different treatment groups. To cause androgen deprivation, we utilized three different procedures with different effects on epithelial cell apoptosis. Animals in the first group were castrated (Cas) by orchiectomy via scrotal incision under ketamine (150 mg/Kg body weight) and xylazin (10 mg/kg body weight) anesthesia. Animals in the second group received a 25 mg/Kg body weight dose of 17β-estradiol diluted in corn oil (E2 group). The third group received a combination of both treatments (Cas+E2 group) (combined orchiectomy and 17β-estradiol). In the control group (Ct; normal androgen and estrogen), the animals received only the vehicle. Three days after the treatments, the rats were killed by anesthetic overdose, and the ventral prostate was dissected out for the microarray and immunohistochemistry analyses.
Project description:Pregnancy has been shown to decrease the risk of mammary carcinogenesis in human rretrospective epidemiological studies. In rodents, pregnancy prior to carcinogen administration or after carcinogen challenge has also been shown to reduce the incidence of palpable carcinomas. In this study our objective to determine the underlying genomic signature of the pregnancy and reproductive hormones on the mammary gland that contribute to the protection against mammary gland carcinogenesis. We used the rat microarray technology to observe total transcriptome changes after the pregnancy and exogenous reproductive hormone stimulation of the mammary gland. Fifteen 3 month old post-pubertal virgin Lewis rats were randomly assigned to three groups (5 rats per group): control (C), pregnancy (P) and hormone treatment (H). The P group animals had a full-term pregnancy (21-23 days) and rats in the group H were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsal midline with two silastic capsules [(0.078 inch inner diameter, 0.125 inch outer diameter) x 2 cm long; Dow Corning, Midland, MI) filled separately with 100 μg ethynyl estradiol (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) packed in a cellulose matrix (Sigma) and 30 mg of megesterol acetate (Sigma) for 21 days. The control animals had neither the hormone treatment nor being pregnant. The animals in C and P groups were also implanted with sham capsules filled with cellulose matrix only. The capsules were surgically implanted at the beginning of the experiment and removed from all animals after 21 days except that the capsules were removed from the P group following parturition (21-23 days). The delivered pups in the P group were euthanized within 4-6 hours of delivery to avoid suckling. After the removal of capsules all groups were rested a total of ~49 days before euthanasia. All animals were euthanized during metestrus stage, determined by vaginal cytology and total RNA was extracted from the mammary gland tissues using Trizol reagent.
Project description:To investigate the effects of corn oil (CO), common drug vehicle, on the gene expression profiles in rat thymus with microarray technique. Female Wistar Rats were administered daily with normal saline (NS), CO 2, 5, 10 ml/kg for 14 days, respectively. Then, the thymus samples of rats were collected for microarray test and histopathology examination. The microarray data showed that 0, 40, 458 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in 2, 5, 10 ml/kg CO group compared to NS group, respectively. The altered genes were associated with immune response, cellular response to organic cyclic substance, regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation, et al. However, no obvious histopathologic change was observed in the three CO dosage groups. These data show that 10 ml/kg CO , that dosage has been determined as the vehicle in drug safety assessment , can cause obvious influence on gene expression in rat thymus. Our study suggest that the dosage of CO gavage as the vehicle for water-in-soluble agents in drug development should be no more than 5 ml/kg if agents’ molecular effects in thymus want to be assessed. Gene expression in thymus from female Wistar rats daily administered with 2, 5, 10 ml/kg of corn oil or 10 ml/kg of saline by gavage for 14 consecutive days were measured using Agilent Rat Whole Genome 8×*60K array.