Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a group of plant secondary metabolites that have repellent activity against herbivore insects and pathogens, and anti-carcinogenic activity in humans. They are produced in plants of the Brassicaceae and other related families. Biosynthesis of GSLs from precursor amino acids takes place in two subcellular compartments; amino acid biosynthesis and side chain elongation occur mainly in the chloroplast, whereas the following core structure synthesis takes place in the cytos ...[more]
Project description:The LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lmx1a is a very potential inducer of stem cells towards dopaminergic neurons. Despite several studies on the function of this gene, the exact in vivo role of Lmx1a in mesodiencephalic dopamine (mdDA) neuronal specification is still not understood. To analyze the genes functioning downstream of Lmx1a, we performed expression microarray analysis of LMX1A overexpressing MN9D dopaminergic cells. Several interesting regulated genes were identified, based on their regulation in other, previously generated expression arrays, and their expression pattern in the developing mdDA neuronal field. Post analysis through in vivo expression analysis in Lmx1a mouse mutant (drJ/drJ) embryos demonstrated a clear decrease in expression of the genes Grb10 and Rgs4, in and adjacent to the rostral and dorsal mdDA neuronal field and within the Lmx1a expression domain. Interestingly, the DA marker Vmat2 was significantly up-regulated as a consequence of increased LMX1A dose, and subsequent analysis on Lmx1a mutant E14.5 and adult tissue revealed a significant decrease in Vmat2 expression in mdDA neurons. Taken together, microarray analysis of an LMX1A overexpression cell system resulted in the identification of novel downstream targets of Lmx1A in mdDA neurons: Grb10, Rgs4 and Vmat2. RNA was isolated from MN9D cells. Each experimental sample consisted of a RNA pool derived from 3 separate 10-cm dishes containing Lmx1a overexpressing MN9D cells (transfected with pcDNA3.1(-)-Lmx1a). microarray analysis was performed in triplicate, each experimental sample was hybridized to the same reference pool of RNA derived from 9 10-cm dishes containing control MN9D cells (transfected with empty pcDNA3.1(-)). On each of three microarray samples, dye swap was performed to correct for dye effects.
Project description:The PI3K-PKB/c-akt-FOXO signalling network provides a major intracellular hub for regulation of cell proliferation, survival and stress resistance1. Here we report a novel function for FOXO transcription factors in regulating autophagy through modulation of intracellular glutamine levels. To identify novel transcriptional targets of this module we performed an unbiased microarray analysis after conditional activation of the key components PI3K, PKB, FOXO3 and FOXO4. Utilising this global pathway approach we identified glutamine synthetase (GS) as being transcriptionally regulated by PI3K-PKB-FOXO signalling. FOXO-mediated increase in GS expression specifically induced glutamine production independently of cell type, and this was evolutionary conserved. FOXO activation resulted in mTOR inhibition by preventing the translocation of mTOR to lysosomal membranes, which was dependent on GS activity. Increased GS activity resulted in increased autophagosome turnover as measured by LC3 lipidation, p62 degradation, and confocal imaging of LC3, p62, WIPI-1, ULK2 and Atg12. Inhibition of FOXO3-mediated autophagy resulted in increased apoptosis, suggesting that the induction of autophagy by FOXO3-mediated upregulation of GS is important for cellular survival. These findings reveal a novel signalling network that can directly modulate autophagy through regulation of glutamine metabolism. conditional activation of pkb and pi3k were followed in a timeseries. Each timepoint consists of 4 independent replicates, labeled with either cy3 or cy5 and put on array against time0.
Project description:We were interested in determining what genes might be controlled by TFAP2C and/or TFAP2A, either directly or indirectly through regulation of ER-alpha and potentially other signaling pathways. We performed an microarray analysis in MCF7 cells with elimination of either TFAP2C or TFAP2A. The patterns of gene expression with alteration of TFAP2 activity were compared to changes in expression induced by estrogen exposure. Knock-down of TFAP2C in the presence of estrogen altered the pattern of several known ERalpha-regulated genes and a number of genes outside the estrogen-regulated pathways. Experiment Overall Design: 6 samples were analyzed. Experiment Overall Design: 1. MCF7 cells treated with TFAP2C siRNA, without the presence of estrogen. Experiment Overall Design: 2.MCF7 cells treated with TFAP2C siRNA, with the presence of estrogen. Experiment Overall Design: 3.MCF7 cells treated with TFAP2A siRNA, without the presence of estrogen. Experiment Overall Design: 4.MCF7 cells treated with TFAP2A siRNA, with the presence of estrogen. Experiment Overall Design: 5.MCF7 cells with no siRNA treatment, without the presence of estrogen. Experiment Overall Design: 6.MCF7 cells with no siRNA treatment, with the presence of estrogen.