Project description:Maize (Zea mays) is an excellent cereal model for research on seed development because of its relatively large size for both embryo and endosperm. Despite the importance of seed in agriculture, the genome-wide transcriptome pattern throughout seed development has not been well characterized. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we developed a spatiotemporal transcriptome atlas of B73 maize seed development based on 53 samples from fertilization to maturity for embryo, endosperm, and whole seed tissues.
Project description:Low grade gliomas (LGG; WHO grade 2 astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas) account for about 25% of diffuse gliomas. Most occur in young adults between the ages of 30 and 45 years, and are usually only diagnosed after a seizure. In general, they can be characterised by a long period of continuous slow growth, followed by malignant transformation that will be the cause of death up to 25 years after onset. However, there is a significant number of patients for whom malignant progression is more rapid, with mortality observed within 5 years. This suggests that, as with other tumour types, there may be different subtypes of LGG with specific prognosis. It follows that being able to identify these subtypes may permit better patient stratification and aid targeted treatments. Until recently, our understanding of the variables involved in patient prognosis included the type of tumour oligodendroglial tumours indicate better prognosis than oligoastrocytic or astrocytic and presence of the 1p-19q co-deletion. In addition, the recent discovery of mutations in IDH1&2 in the majority of LGGs provided another means of stratifying patients, while offering an important insight into their biology. However, we still understand very little of the biology behind the genesis and progression of the 70-80% of LGG that bear IDH1&2 mutations, let alone the remaining IDH wild-type tumours.
Project description:This experiment contains the Mus musculus subset of data from the experiment E-GEOD-41338 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-GEOD-41338/). mRNA profiles of several organs (brain, liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle) in multiple vertebrate species (mouse, chicken, lizard, frog, pufferfish) were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina HiSeq to better understand how species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been described in cell lines and various whole tissues, but lncRNA analysis of development in vivo is limited. Here, we comprehensively analyze lncRNA expression for the adult mouse subventricular zone neural stem cell lineage. We utilize complementary genome-wide techniques including RNA-seq, RNA CaptureSeq, and ChIP-seq to associate specific lncRNAs with neural cell types, developmental processes, and human disease states. By integrating data from chromatin state maps, custom microarrays, and FACS purification of the subventricular zone lineage, we stringently identify lncRNAs with potential roles in adult neurogenesis. shRNA-mediated knockdown of two such lncRNAs, Six3os and Dlx1as, indicate roles for lncRNAs in the glial-neuronal lineage specification of multipotent adult stem cells. Our data and workflow thus provide a uniquely coherent in vivo lncRNA analysis and form the foundation of a user-friendly online resource for the study of lncRNAs in development and disease. RNA-seq (both paired end and single) from the adult neurogenic niches- subventricular zone (SVZ), olfactory bulb (OB), dentate gyrus (DG) and control non-neurogenic tissue, striatum (STR). Reads were used to assemble a lncRNA catalogue and determine expression values for both protein-coding and noncoding genes
Project description:This experiment contains the Anolis carolinensis subset of data from the experiment E-GEOD-41338 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-GEOD-41338/). mRNA profiles of several organs (brain, liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle) in multiple vertebrate species (mouse, chicken, lizard, frog, pufferfish) were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina HiSeq to better understand how species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level.
Project description:This experiment contains a subset of data from the BLUEPRINT Epigenome project ( http://www.blueprint-epigenome.eu ), which aims at producing a reference haemopoetic epigenomes for the research community. 74 samples of primary cells or cultured primary cells of different haemopoeitc lineages from cord blood, venous blood, bone marrow and thymus are included in this experiment. This ArrayExpress record contains only meta-data. Raw data files have been archived at the European Genome-Phenome Archive (EGA, www.ebi.ac.uk/ega) by the consortium, with restricted access to protect sample donors' identity. There are 32 EGA data set accessions, which can be found under the Comment[EGA_DATA_SET] column in the 'Sample Data Relationship Format' (SDRF) file of this ArrayExpress record (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-MTAB-3827/E-MTAB-3827.sdrf.txt). Details on how to apply for data access via the BLUEPRINT data access committee are on the EGA data set pages. Likewise, mapping of samples to these EGA accessions can be found in the SDRF file. Please note that the raw data files for 11 sequencing runs have yet been deposited at EGA, so they are marked with ""ot available"" under the Comment[SUBMITTED_FILE_NAME] field in the SDRF file, and were included for the sake of completeness. Further iInformation on individual samples and sequencing libraries can also be found on the BLUEPRINT data coordination centre (DCC) website: http://dcc.blueprint-epigenome.eu"
Project description:Sheep total RNA was extracted from embryonic and adult tissues. Sequencing libraries were prepared from the RNA using the Illumina TruSeq stranded total RNA with the Ribo Zero gold option for the rRNA removal. The fragmentation in the standard protocol was modified to increase the average insert size in the library. Sequencing with 151 base paired end reads was performed on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 in rapid mode.
Project description:The amount of RNA sequencing data on skeletal muscle is very limited. We have analyzed a large set of human muscle biopsy samples and provide extensive information on the baseline skeletal muscle transcriptome, including completely novel protein-coding transcripts. Analyze of transcriptome in 24 skeletal muscle biopsy samples, 12 individuals and one biopsy per leg per individual. This experiment is linked to E-GEOD-58387.
Project description:Purpose: To better understand the function of the various cell types of the brain, we prospectively purified neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, newly formed oligodendrocytes, myelinating oligodendrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells, and pericytes from mouse cerebral cortex. We generated a transcriptome database for these 8 cell types by RNA sequencing and used a highly sensitive algorithm to detect alternative splicing events in each gene. Our analysis identified thousands of new cell type enriched genes and splicing isoforms that will provide novel markers for cell identification, new tools for genetic manipulation, and numerous insights into the biology of the brain. Method Part1:To purify astrocytes, we took advantage of a BAC transgenic mouse line expressing EGFP under the control of regulatory sequences in Aldh1l1-BAC. This line has been previously characterized to have complete astrocyte-specific labeling throughout the brain. Cells from a litter of 8-16 P7 Aldh1l1-EGFP transgenic mice of both genders were pooled together as one biological replicate. The cortices were dissected out and meninges were removed. The tissue was enzymatically dissociated to make a suspension of single cells as described previously. Briefly, the tissue was incubated at 33 °C for 45 minutes in 20 ml of a papain solution containing Earle’s balanced salts (EBSS, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, E7510), D(+)-glucose (22.5mM), NaHCO3 (26mM), DNase (125U/ml, Worthington, Lakewood, NJ, LS002007), papain (9 U/ml, Worthington, Lakewood, NJ, LS03126), and L-cysteine (1mM, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, C7880). The papain solution was equilibrated with 5% CO2 and 95% O2 gas before and during papain treatment. Following papain treatment, the tissue was washed three times with 4.5ml of inhibitor buffer containing BSA (1.0mg/ml, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, A-8806), and ovomucoid (also known as trypsin inhibitor, 1.0 mg/ml, Roche Diagnostics Corporation, Indianapolis, IN 109878) and then mechanically dissociated by gentle sequential trituration using a 5ml pipette. Dissociated cells were layered on top of 10ml of high concentration inhibitor solution with 5mg/ml BSA and 5mg/ml ovomucoid and centrifuged at 130g for 5 minutes. The cell pellet was then resuspended in 12 ml Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA 14287) containing 0.02% BSA and 12.5U/ml DNase and filtered through a 20um Nitex mesh (Sefar America Inc., Depew NY, Lab Pak 03-20/14) to remove undissociated cell clumps. This yields a single cell suspension. Cell health is assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Only single cell suspensions with >85% viability were used for purification experiments. 1μg/ml propidium iodide (PI, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, P4864) was added to the single cell solution to label dead cells. Cells were sorted on a BD Aria II cell sorter (BD Bioscience) with a 70μm nozzle. Dead cells and debris were gated first by their low forward light scatter and high side light scatter and secondly by high PI staining. Doublets were removed by high side light scatter. Cell concentration and flow rate were carefully adjusted to maximize purity. Astrocytes were identified based on high EGFP fluorescence. FACS routinely yielded >99% purity based on reanalysis of sorted cells. Method Part2:To purify neurons, a single cell suspension was prepared as described above and incubated at 34 °C for one hour to allow expression of cell surface protein antigens digested by papain, and then incubated on two sequential panning plates coated with BSL-1 to deplete endothelial cells (10 minutes each), followed by a 30 minute incuation on a plate coated with mouse IgM anti-O4 hybridoma (Bansal et al., 1989. 4ml hybridoma supernatant diluted with 8ml DPBS/0.2% BSA) to deplete OPCs, and then incubated for 20 minutes on a plate coated with rat anti-mouse CD45 (BD Pharmingen 550539, 1.25ug in 12ml of DPBS/0.2% BSA) to deplete microglia and macrophages. Finally cells were added to a plate coated with rat anti-mouse L1CAM (30ug in 12ml of DPBS/0.2% BSA, Millipore, Billerica, MA, MAB5272) to bind neurons. The adherent cells on the L1CAM plate were washed 8 times with 10-20 ml of DPBS to remove all antigen-negative nonadherent cells, and then removed from the plate by treating with trypsin (Sigma, 1,000U/ml, T-4665) in 8ml Ca2+ and Mg2+ free EBSS (Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA, 9208) for 3-10 minutes at 37°C in a 10% CO2 incubator. The trypsin was then neutralized with 20ml of fetal calf serum (FCS) solution containing 30% FCS (Gibco, 10437-028), 35% Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM, Invitrogen, 11960-044), and 35% Neurobasal (Gibco, 21103-049). The cells were dislodged by gentle squirting of FCS solution over the plate and harvested by centrifugation at 200g for 10 minutes. Method Part3:To purify microglia and oligodendrocyte-lineage cells, the mice were first perfused with 10ml PBS to remove macrophage contamination from the brain. A single cell suspension was then prepared as described above and incubated 20 minutes on a plate coated with rat anti-mouse CD45 (BD Pharmingen 550539, 1.25ug in 12ml of DPBS/0.2% BSA) to harvest microglia, and then incubated sequentially on four BSL1 coated plates (8 minutes each) to deplete endothelial cells and remaining microglia. The remaining cells were next incubated for 30 minutes on a rat anti-PDGFRα (10ug in 12ml DPBS/0.2% BSA, Fitzgerald, Acton, MA, 10R-CD140aMS) coated plate to harvest OPCs, and then incubated on an additional PDGFRα plate and mouse A2B5 monoclonal antibody ascites (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD) coated plate for 30 minutes each to deplete remaining OPCs. The cell suspension was next incubated on an anti-MOG hybridoma coated plate for 30 minutes to harvest myelinating oligodendrocytes, followed by an additional anti-MOG hybridoma coated plate for 30 minutes to deplete any remaining myelinating oligodendrocytes. Finally, the cell suspension was incubated on an anti-GalC hybridoma coated plate for 30 minutes to harvest newly formed oligodendrocytes. For purification of RNA, the cells were lysed while still attached to the panning plate with Qiazol reagent (Qiagen 217004), and total RNA was purified as described below. Mehtod Part4:To purify endothelial cells, we took advantage of Tie2-EGFP transgenic mice available from Jackson labs. These mice express EGFP under the pan-endothelial Tie2 promotor (Daneman et al., 2010; Motoike et al., 2000). Single cell suspension was prepared and FACS was performed as described above. Method Part5: RNA-Seq was performed on the polyadenylated fraction of RNA isolated from purified cell samples.Two biological replicates were used for each phase.100 ng total RNAs were used for each sequencing library. RNA samples were polyA selected and paired-end sequencing libraries were constructed using TruSeq RNA Sample Prep Kit as described in the TruSeq RNA Sample Preparation V2 Guide (Illumina).The samples were then sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. Method Part6: Read mapping and Transcriptome construction were done by using optimized pipeline which integrate Tophat followed by Cufflinks. Result:We purified neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), newly formed oligodendrocytes (NFOs), myelinating oligodendrocytes (MOs), microglia, endothelial cells and pericytes from mouse cortex and used RNA-Seq to generate a high resolution transcriptome database of > 22,000 genes. We identified thousands of novel cell type-enriched genes that have not been previously identified. These include novel transcription factors, ligands, receptors, enzymes, and signaling molecules. We then used a novel splice mapping algorithm to identify thousands of cell type-specific alternative splicing events. Conclusion:We generated a transcriptome database for these 8 cell types by RNA sequencing and used a highly sensitive algorithm to detect alternative splicing events in each gene. Our analysis i mRNA profiles of purified cell samples from mice were generated by RNA-sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:This experiment contains a subset of data from the BLUEPRINT Epigenome project ( http://www.blueprint-epigenome.eu ), which aims at producing a reference haemopoetic epigenomes for the research community. 4 samples of primary cells from tonsil with cell surface markes CD20med/CD38high in young individuals (3 to 10 years old) are included in this experiment. This ArrayExpress record contains only meta-data. Raw data files have been archived at the European Genome-Phenome Archive (EGA, www.ebi.ac.uk/ega) by the consortium, with restricted access to protect sample donors' identity. The relevant accessions of EGA data sets is EGAD00001001523. Details on how to apply for data access via the BLUEPRINT data access committee are on the EGA data set pages. The mapping of samples to these EGA accessions can be found in the 'Sample Data Relationship Format' file of this ArrayExpress record. Information on individual samples and sequencing libraries can also be found on the BLUEPRINT data coordination centre (DCC) website: http://dcc.blueprint-epigenome.eu