Project description:To investigate the pathological effect of miR-126 on the progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induced by AML1-ETO9a (AE9a), we conducted a series of mouse bone marrow transplantation (BMT) assays with the following groups: AE9a (primary donor cells were wild-type mouse bone marrow progenitor (i.e., lineage negative; Lin-) cells retrovirally transduced with MSCV-PIG-AE9a), AE9a+miR-126 (primary donor cells were wild-type mouse bone marrow progenitor (i.e., Lin-) cells retrovirally transduced with MSCV-PIG-AE9a-miR-126), and miR-126KO+AE9a (primary donor cells were miR-126 knockout mouse bone marrow progenitor (i.e., Lin-) cells retrovirally transduced with MSCV-PIG-AE9a), along with a control group (primary donor cells were wild-type mouse bone marrow progenitor (i.e., Lin-) cells retrovirally transduced with MSCV-PIG empty vector). The control group was only used in the primary and secondary BMT assays, whereas the three leukemic groups including AE9a, AE9a+miR-126 and miR-126KO+AE9a were used in four passages (i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) of BMT assays. Then, gene expression profiling was conducted with bone marrow samples collected from different groups to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying miR-126 effects on leukemia initiation and progression and maintenance and self-renewal of leukemia stem/initiating cells. A total of 39 mouse bone marrow samples including 36 mouse AML samples with AE9a, AE9a+miR-126, and miR-126KO+AE9a collected from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th passages of BMT recipient mice (3 mice for each group in each passage), along with 3 normal controls from the 1st passage of BMT, were analyzed by use of Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 2.0 ST Array (Affymetirx, Santa Clara, CA). For each sample, the CD45.1+ cells (i.e., transplanted donor cells) were sorted with flow cytometry from whole BM cells collected from BMT recipient mice at the end stage. Then total RNA was isolated by use of miRNeasy extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA).
Project description:XFE progeroid syndrome, a disease of accelerated aging caused by deficiency in the DNA repair endonuclease XPF-ERCC1, is modeled by Ercc1 knockout and hypomorphic mice. Tissues and primary cells from these mice senesce prematurely, offering a unique opportunity to identify factors that regulate senescence and aging. We compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in Ercc1-/- primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and wild-type (WT) MEFs in different growth conditions to identify miRNAs that drive cellular senescence. Microarray analysis showed three differentially expressed miRNAs in passage 7 (P7) Ercc1-/- MEFs grown at 20% O2 compared to Ercc1-/- MEFs grown at 3% O2. Thirty-six differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in Ercc1-/- MEFs at P7 compared to early passage (P3) in 3% O2. Eight of these miRNAs (miR-449a, miR-455*, miR-128, miR-497, miR-543, miR-450b-3p, miR-872 and miR-10b) were similarly downregulated in the liver of progeroid Ercc1-/? and old WT mice compared to adult WT mice, a tissue that senesces with aging. Three miRNAs (miR-449a, miR-455* and miR-128) were also downregulated in Ercc1-/? and WT old mice kidneys compared to young WT mice. We also discovered that the miRNA expression regulator Dicer is significantly downregulated in tissues of old mice and late passage cells compared to young controls. Collectively these results support the conclusion that the miRNAs identified may play an important role in staving off cellular senescence and their altered expression could be indicative of aging.
Project description:microRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA targeting mRNAs leading to their instability and diminished translation. Altered expression of miRNA is associated with cancer. Inflammation and nitric oxide modulates the development of lymphomas in p53 knockout mice and there exists a negative feedback loop between p53 and NOS2. Using a genetic strategy, we tested the hypothesis that inflammation-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress modulates miRNA expression in mouse model deficient in either p53 or NOS2. Mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum), to induce inflammation, clearly separated from controls by their miRNA profiles in wild-type, p53- and NOS2-knockout genetic backgrounds. C. parvum-induced inflammation significantly (p < 0.005) increased miR-21, miR-29b and miR-34a/b/c and decreased (p < 0.005) mir-29c and mir-181a/c expression in the spleen of C57BL mice. However, p53-knockout C57BL mice did not show a significant increase in the mir-34b/c or a decrease in mir-29c expression following C. parvum-induced inflammation. Expression of mir-21, mir-29b and mir-181a was independent of p53-status. NOS2-knockout C57BL mice showed a significant increase in miR-21 and miR-34a/b/c and decrease in miR-181a similar to the wild-type (WT) mice following C. parvum-induced inflammation. However, in contrast to the WT mice, miR-29b/c expression was not affected following C. parvum-induced inflammation in NOS2 knockout mice. N-acetyl cysteine, an anti-oxidant, reduced the expression of miR-21 and miR-29b in C. parvum-treated WT mice (p < 0.005) as compared with control C. parvum-treated mice. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that inflammation modulates miRNA expression in vivo and the alteration in specific miRNA under an inflammatory microenvironment, can be influenced by p53 (miR-34b/c) and NO(•) (29b/c).
Project description:Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by occlusion of the coronary artery and induces ischemia in the myocardium and eventually a massive loss in cardiomyocytes. Studies have shown many factors or treatments that can affect the healing and remodeling of the heart upon infarction, leading to better cardiac performance and clinical outcome. Previously, miR-132/212 has been shown to play an important role in arteriogenesis in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia and in the regulation of cardiac contractility in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice. In this study, we explored the role of miR-132/212 during ischemia in a murine MI model. Methods and Results: miR-132/212 knockout mice show enhanced cardiac contractile function at baseline compared to wild-type controls, as assessed by echocardiography. One day after induction of MI by permanent occlusion, miR-132/212 knockout mice display similar levels of cardiac damage as wild-type controls, as demonstrated by infarction size quantification and LDH release, although a trend toward more cardiomyocyte cell death was observed in the knockout mice as shown by TUNEL staining. Four weeks after MI, miR-132/212 knockout mice show no differences in terms of cardiac function, expression of cardiac stress markers, and fibrotic remodeling, although vascularization was reduced. In line with these in vivo observation, overexpression of miR-132 or miR-212 in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte suppress hypoxia induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Conclusion: Although we previously observed a role in collateral formation and myocardial contractility, the absence of miR-132/212 did not affect the overall myocardial performance upon a permanent occlusion of the coronary artery. This suggests an interplay of different roles of this miR-132/212 before and during MI, including an inhibitory effect on cell death and angiogenesis, and a positive effect on cardiac contractility and autophagic response. Thus, spatial or tissue specific manipulation of this microRNA family may be essential to fully understand the roles and to develop interventions to reduce infarct size.
Project description:Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction occurs in cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke. Opening of the BBB during a stroke has a negative impact on acute outcomes. We have recently demonstrated that miR-34a regulates the BBB by targeting cytochrome c (CYC) in vitro. To investigate the role of miR-34a in a stroke, we purified primary cerebrovascular endothelial cells (pCECs) from mouse brains following 1?h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and measured real-time PCR to detect miR-34a levels. We demonstrate that the miR-34a levels are elevated in pCECs from tMCAO mice at the time point of BBB opening following 1?h tMCAO and reperfusion. Interestingly, knockout of miR-34a significantly reduces BBB permeability, alleviates disruption of tight junctions, and improves stroke outcomes compared to wild-type (WT) controls. CYC is decreased in the ischemic hemispheres and pCECs from WT but not in miR-34a-/- mice following stroke reperfusion. We further confirmed CYC is a target of miR-34a by a dural luciferase reporter gene assay in vitro. Our study provides the first description of miR-34a affecting stroke outcomes and may lead to discovery of new mechanisms and treatments for cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke.
Project description:Melatonin therapy or prolonged exposure to complete darkness reduces biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis in bile-duct-ligated (BDL) rats; however, no information exists in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Thus, we aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of prolonged dark therapy or melatonin administration on hepatic fibrosis in the multidrug resistance gene 2-knockout (Mdr2<sup>-/-</sup>) mouse model of PSC. Melatonin levels, biliary mass, liver fibrosis, angiogenesis and miR-200b expression were evaluated in wild-type and Mdr2<sup>-/-</sup> mice exposed to darkness or melatonin treatment or in male patients with PSC and healthy controls. Mdr2<sup>-/-</sup> mice were also treated with miR-200b inhibitor or control before evaluating biliary mass, liver fibrosis, and angiogenesis. After overexpression of arylalkylamine <i>N</i>-acetyltransferase (AANAT; the enzyme regulating melatonin synthesis) or inhibition of miR-200b in cholangiocytes and hepatic stellate cells <i>in vitro</i>, we evaluated angiogenesis and fibrosis gene expression. After exposure to darkness or administration of melatonin, Mdr2<sup>-/-</sup> mice show elevated serum melatonin levels and inhibition of biliary mass, along with reduction of liver fibrosis and angiogenesis. MicroRNA PCR analysis demonstrated that miR-200b expression increased in Mdr2<sup>-/-</sup> mice and patients with PSC compared with controls and decreased in Mdr2<sup>-/-</sup> mice subjected to dark exposure or melatonin treatment. Inhibition of miR-200b in Mdr2<sup>-/-</sup> ablates biliary proliferation, liver fibrosis, and angiogenesis. <i>In vitro</i>, overexpression of AANAT or inhibition of miR-200b in cholangiocytes and hepatic stellate cells decreased the expression of miR-200b, angiogenesis, and fibrosis genes. Dark therapy or targeting melatonin/miR-200b axis may be important in the management of biliary damage and liver fibrosis in cholangiopathies including PSC.-Wu, N., Meng, F., Zhou, T., Han, Y., Kennedy, L., Venter, J., Francis, H., DeMorrow, S., Onori, P., Invernizzi, P., Bernuzzi, F., Mancinelli, R., Gaudio, E., Franchitto, A., Glaser, S., Alpini G. Prolonged darkness reduces liver fibrosis in a mouse model of primary sclerosing cholangitis by miR-200b down-regulation.
Project description:West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that has disseminated globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans. MircoRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates various aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses. We previously reported that WNV infection induces upregulation of miR-155 in mice brains. In the current study, we demonstrate the critical role of miR-155 in restricting the pathogenesis of WNV infection in mice. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, miR-155 knockout mice exhibited significantly higher morbidity and mortality after infection with either a lethal strain, WNV NY99, or a non-lethal strain, WNV Eg101. Increased mortality in miR-155-/- mice was associated with significantly high WNV burden in the serum and brains. Protein levels of interferon (IFN)-? in the serum and brains were higher in miR-155-/- mice. However, miR-155-/- mice exhibited significantly lower protein levels of anti-viral interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-12, IL-6, IL-15, and GM-CSF despite the high viral load. Primary mouse cells lacking miR-155 were more susceptible to infection with WNV compared to cells derived from WT mice. Besides, overexpression of miR-155 in human neuronal cells modulated anti-viral cytokine response and resulted in significantly lower WNV replication. These data collectively indicate that miR-155 restricts WNV production in mouse and human cells and protects against lethal WNV infection in mice.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRs) play an essential role in the regulation of bone formation and homeostasis. miR-185 has been reported to negatively regulate osteogenesis in vitro. However, whether it has an impact on in vivo bone homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that primary osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells derived from miR-185-knockout (KO) mice exhibited enhanced osteogenesis. Further, we constructed an ovariectomized mouse model to investigate the role of miR-185 during osteoporosis. Micro-computed tomography revealed an increased bone volume in KO compared to wild-type mice 6 weeks after surgery, indicating redundant bone formation after miR-185 depletion. Dual-luciferase reporter assays identified biglycan (Bgn), which promotes bone formation through the BMP/Smad pathway, as the direct target of miR-185. Taken together, these findings indicate that blocking miR-185 expression increases bone formation during osteoporosis, which may partly occur through the regulation of Bgn expression and BMP/Smad signaling.
Project description:Physiological stress resulting from infections, trauma, surgery, alcoholism, malnutrition, and/or pregnancy results in a substantial depletion of immature CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes. We previously identified 18 distinct stress-responsive microRNAs (miRs) in the thymus upon systemic stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (Dex). MiRs are short, non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in the immune system by targeting diverse mRNAs, suggesting that their modulation in the thymus in response to stress could impact thymopoiesis. MiR-181d is one such stress-responsive miR, exhibiting a 15-fold down-regulation in expression. We utilized both transgenic and gene-targeting approaches to study the impact of miR-181d on thymopoiesis under normal and stress conditions. The over-expression of miR-181d in developing thymocytes reduced the total number of immature CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes. LPS or Dex injections caused a 4-fold greater loss of these cells when compared with the wild type controls. A knockout mouse was developed to selectively eliminate miR-181d, leaving the closely spaced and contiguous family member miR-181c intact. The targeted elimination of just miR-181d resulted in a thymus stress-responsiveness similar to wild-type mice. These experiments suggest that one or more of three other miR-181 family members have overlapping or compensatory functions. Gene expression comparisons of thymocytes from the wild type versus transgenic mice indicated that miR-181d targets a number of stress, metabolic, and signaling pathways. These findings demonstrate that selected miRs enhance stress-mediated thymic involution in vivo.