Project description:The chemical 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) is an important starting reagent for the commercial synthesis of specialty chemicals. In this study, a part of the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle from Metallosphaera sedula was utilized for 3HP production. To study the basic biochemistry of this pathway, an in vitro-reconstituted system was established using acetyl-CoA as the substrate for the kinetic analysis of this system. The results indicated that 3HP formation was sensitive to acetyl-CoA carboxylase and malonyl-CoA reductase, but not malonate semialdehyde reductase. Also, the competition between 3HP formation and fatty acid production was analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. This study has highlighted how metabolic flux is controlled by different catalytic components. We believe that this reconstituted system would be valuable for understanding 3HP biosynthesis pathway and for future engineering studies to enhance 3HP production.
Project description:Autotrophic members of the Sulfolobales (Crenarchaeota) contain acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA)/propionyl-CoA carboxylase as the CO2 fixation enzyme and use a modified 3-hydroxypropionate cycle to assimilate CO2 into cell material. In this central metabolic pathway malonyl-CoA, the product of acetyl-CoA carboxylation, is further reduced to 3-hydroxypropionate. Extracts of Metallosphaera sedula contained NADPH-specific malonyl-CoA reductase activity that was 10-fold up-regulated under autotrophic growth conditions. Malonyl-CoA reductase was partially purified and studied. Based on N-terminal amino acid sequencing the corresponding gene was identified in the genome of the closely related crenarchaeum Sulfolobus tokodaii. The Sulfolobus gene was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified and studied. The enzyme catalyzes the following reaction: malonyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ --> malonate-semialdehyde + CoA + NADP+. In its native state it is associated with small RNA. Its activity was stimulated by Mg2+ and thiols and inactivated by thiol-blocking agents, suggesting the existence of a cysteine adduct in the course of the catalytic cycle. The enzyme was specific for NADPH (Km = 25 microM) and malonyl-CoA (Km = 40 microM). Malonyl-CoA reductase has 38% amino acid sequence identity to aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, suggesting a common ancestor for both proteins. It does not exhibit any significant similarity with malonyl-CoA reductase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus. This shows that the autotrophic pathway in Chloroflexus and Sulfolobaceae has evolved convergently and that these taxonomic groups have recruited different genes to bring about similar metabolic processes.
Project description:Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a thermoplastic with great compostability and biocompatibility, and can be produced through several biosynthetic pathways, in which the glycerol pathway achieved the highest P3HP production. However, exogenous supply of vitamin B12 was required to maintain the activity of glycerol dehydratase, resulting in high production cost. To avoid the addition of VB12, we have previously constructed a P3HP biosynthetic route with ?-alanine as intermediate, and the present study aimed to improve the P3HP production of this pathway. L-aspartate decarboxylase PanD was found to be the rate-limiting enzyme in the ?-alanine pathway firstly. To improve the pathway efficiency, PanD was screened from four different sources (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Corynebacterium glutamicum). And PanD from C. glutamicum was found to have the highest activity, the P3HP production was improved in flask cultivation with this enzyme. To further improve the production, the host strain was screened and the culture condition was optimized. Under optimal conditions, production and content of P3HP reached to 10.2 g/L and 39.1% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) in an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. To date, this is the highest P3HP production without VB12.
Project description:The 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (3HP/4HB) cycle fixes CO2 in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea and holds promise for metabolic engineering because of its thermostability and potentially rapid pathway kinetics. A reaction kinetics model was developed to examine the biological and biotechnological attributes of the 3HP/4HB cycle as it operates in Metallosphaera sedula, based on previous information as well as on kinetic parameters determined here for recombinant versions of five of the cycle enzymes (malonyl-CoA/succinyl-CoA reductase, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA synthetase, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydratase, acryloyl-CoA reductase, and succinic semialdehyde reductase). The model correctly predicted previously observed features of the cycle: the 35-65% split of carbon flux through the acetyl-CoA and succinate branches, the high abundance and relative ratio of acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and MCR, and the significance of ACC and hydroxybutyryl-CoA synthetase (HBCS) as regulated control points for the cycle. The model was then used to assess metabolic engineering strategies for incorporating CO2 into chemical intermediates and products of biotechnological importance: acetyl-CoA, succinate, and 3-hydroxypropionate.
Project description:The kinetic model of E. coli central carbon metabolism developed by Millard et al. 2016 was extended to include the production Glycerol, Malonyl-CoA, and Beta-Alanine. This model was then used as a base to insert three independent heterologous pathways for 3-hydroxypropionate and acrylic acid production.
Project description:We have developed the conversion of glycerol into thermoplastic poly(3-hydroxypropionate) [poly(3HP)]. For this, the genes for glycerol dehydratase (dhaB1) of Clostridium butyricum, propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (pduP) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (phaC1) of Ralstonia eutropha were expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli. Poly(3HP) was accumulated up to 11.98% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) in a two-step, fed-batch fermentation. The present study shows an interesting application to engineer a poly(3HP) synthesis pathway in bacteria.
Project description:The pathway of autotrophic CO2 fixation was studied in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus and in the aerobic thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula. In both organisms, none of the key enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle, the reductive citric acid cycle, and the reductive acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway were detectable. However, cells contained the biotin-dependent acetyl-CoA carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase as well as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The specific enzyme activities of the carboxylases were high enough to explain the autotrophic growth rate via the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. Extracts catalyzed the CO2-, MgATP-, and NADPH-dependent conversion of acetyl-CoA to 3-hydroxypropionate via malonyl-CoA and the conversion of this intermediate to succinate via propionyl-CoA. The labelled intermediates were detected in vitro with either 14CO2 or [14C]acetyl-CoA as precursor. These reactions are part of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle, the autotrophic pathway proposed for C. aurantiacus. The investigation was extended to the autotrophic archaea Sulfolobus metallicus and Acidianus infernus, which showed acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylase activities in extracts of autotrophically grown cells. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity is unexpected in archaea since they do not contain fatty acids in their membranes. These aerobic archaea, as well as C. aurantiacus, were screened for biotin-containing proteins by the avidin-peroxidase test. They contained large amounts of a small biotin-carrying protein, which is most likely part of the acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases. Other archaea reported to use one of the other known autotrophic pathways lacked such small biotin-containing proteins. These findings suggest that the aerobic autotrophic archaea M. sedula, S. metallicus, and A. infernus use a yet-to-be-defined 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for their autotrophic growth. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase are proposed to be the main CO2 fixation enzymes, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase may have an anaplerotic function. The results also provide further support for the occurrence of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle in C. aurantiacus.