Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the genesis of cervical carcinoma. The co-infection among HPV genotypes is frequent, but the clinical significance is controversial; in Mexico, the prevalence and pattern of co-infection differ depending on the geographic area of study. We analyzed the mono- and co-infection prevalence of multiple HPV genotypes, as well as preferential interactions among them in a Mexico City sample population.<h4>Methods</h4>This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Cervical cytology samples from 1163 women and 166 urethral scraping samples of men were analyzed between 2010 and 2012. The detection of HPV infection was performed using the hybrid capture and the genotyping was by PCR (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, and 52).<h4>Results</h4>36% of women were HPV-positive and the most prevalent genotypes were HPV 51, 52, 16, and 33 (42, 38, 37, and 34%, respectively). The prevalence of co-infection was higher (75.37%) than mono-infection in women HPV positives. All genotypes were co-infected with HPV 16, but the co-infection with 51-52 genotypes was the most frequent combination in all cases.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The co-infection was very common; each HPV genotype showed different preferences for co-infection with other genotypes, HPV 51-52 co-infection was the most frequent. The HPV 16, 33, 51 and 52 were the most prevalent and are a public health concern to the Mexican population.
Project description:Vascular dementia is a transversal phenomenon in different kinds of neurodegenerative diseases involving acute and chronic brain alterations. Specifically, the role of phospholipids in the pathogenesis of dementia remains unknown. In the present study, we explored phospholipid profiles a month postischemia in cognitively impaired rats. The two-vessel occlusion (2-VO) model was used to generate brain parenchyma ischemia in adult male rats confirmed by alterations in myelin, endothelium, astrocytes and inflammation mediator. A lipidomic analysis was performed via mass spectrometry in the hippocampus and serum a month postischemia. We found decreases in phospholipids (PLs) associated with neurotransmission, such as phosphatidylcholine (PC 32:0, PC 34:2, PC 36:3, PC 36:4, and PC 42:1), and increases in PLs implied in membrane structure and signaling, such as lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE 18:1, 20:3, and 22:6) and phosphatidylserine (PS 38:4, 36:2, and 40:4), in the hippocampus. Complementarily, PC (PC 34:2, PC 34:3, PC 38:5, and PC 36:5) and ether-PC (ePC 34:1, 34:2, 36:2, 38:2, and 38:3) decreased, while Lyso-PC (LPC 18:0, 18:1, 20:4, 20:5, and LPC 22:6) and phosphatidylinositol (PI 36:2, 38:4, 38:5, and 40:5), as neurovascular state sensors, increased in the serum. Taken together, these data suggest inverse PC/LPC-PI levels as peripheral biomarkers and inverse PC/LPE-PS as a central indicator of postischemic cognitive impairment in rats.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that electroacupuncture possesses therapeutic benefits for depressive disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dense cranial electroacupuncture stimulation (DCEAS) could enhance the antidepressant efficacy in the early phase of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: In this single-blind, randomized, controlled study, patients with MDD were randomly assigned to 9-session DCEAS or noninvasive electroacupuncture (n-EA) control procedure in combination with fluoxetine (FLX) for 3 weeks. Clinical outcomes were measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) as well as the response and remission rates. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were randomly assigned to n-EA (n?=?35) and DCEAS (n?=?38), of whom 34 in n-EA and 36 in DCEAS group were analyzed. DCEAS-treated patients displayed a significantly greater reduction from baseline in HAMD-17 scores at Day 3 through Day 21 and in SDS scores at Day 3 and Day 21 compared to patients receiving n-EA. DCEAS intervention also produced a higher rate of clinically significant response compared to n-EA procedure (19.4% (7/36) vs. 8.8% (3/34)). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: DCEAS is a safe and effective intervention that augments the antidepressant efficacy. It can be considered as an additional therapy in the early phase of SSRI treatment of depressed patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88008690.
Project description:The rat glucocorticoid-induced receptor (rGIR) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor awaiting pharmacological characterization. Among known receptors, rGIR exhibits highest sequence similarity to the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y(2) receptor (38-40%). The pharmacological profile of rGIR was investigated using (125)I-PYY(3-36), a Y(2)-preferring radioligand and several NPY analogs. rGIR displayed a similar displacement profile as reported for the Y(2) receptor, in that the Y(2)-selective C terminus fragments of NPY and PYY (NPY(3-36) and PYY(3-36)) showed high affinity binding and activation of rGIR (low nanomolar range). The rank order potency for displacement was NPY(3-36)>PYY(3-36)=NPY>NPY(13-36)>Ac, Leu NPY(24-36)>[D-Trp(32)]-NPY>Leu(31), Pro(34)-NPY=hPP. NPY and Y(2)-selective agonists NPY(3-36) and PYY(3-36) led to significant activation of (35)S-GTPgammaS binding to rGIR transfected cells. BIIE0246, a specific Y(2) antagonist, displaced (125)I-PYY(3-36) binding to rGIR with high affinity (95nM). Activation of (35)S-GTPgammaS binding by Y(2)-selective agonist in rGIR transfected cells was also completely abolished by BIIE0246. Our data report, for the first time, an interaction of NPY ligands with rGIR expressed in vitro, and indicate similarities between GIR and the NPY-Y(2) receptor.