ABSTRACT: Raw reads from ChIP- [Anti-Histone H3 (acetyl K27) (Abcam, ab4729)] and input sequencing of EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cells from three carriers of TET2 mutation (Ly9, Ly11 and Ly14) and two wild-type (Ly8 and Ly10) family members using Illumina HiSeq Rapid paired-end 60 bp sequencing.
Project description:Raw reads from RNA-sequencing of monocyte-derived macrophages from three individuals with heterozygous TET2 loss (Ly9, Ly11, Ly14) and two wild-type controls (Ly8 and an unrelated control). Libraries were prepared using ScriptSeq RNA-Seq Library Preparation Kit and Illumina sequenced with paired-end 75bp reads.
Project description:Raw reads from targeted bisulfite sequencing. The SureSelect Methyl-Seq target enrichment system (Agilent Technologies, Inc., CA, USA) was used to prepare bisulfite sequencing libraries from blood DNA samples of lymphoma patients (Ly1, Ly2), healthy family members (Ly8, Ly9, Ly10, Ly11, Ly12, Ly13 and Ly14), baseline controls (Control1-5), DNMT3A mutation carriers (Id5, Id7, Id9, Id11) and their age-matched controls (Id6, Id8, Id10, Id12). In addition, blood DNA sample of a patient (HLRCC_N7) with germline fumarate hydratase (FH) mutation is included. Illumina paired-end sequencing for targeted libraries from Ly1, Ly2, Ly8, Ly9, Ly10 and Ly11 was done at Karolinska Institutet using 100 base-pair read length and the HiSeq2000 platform. Illumina paired-end sequencing for targeted libraries from Ly12, Ly13, Ly14, and DNMT3A mutation carriers and their age-matched controls was done as a service at BGI (BGI Tech Solutions Co., Ltd., China) using 126 base-pair read length and the HiSeq2500 platform.
Project description:Bam files from deep exome sequencing of blood DNA samples from five TET2 mutation carriers (Ly1, Ly2, Ly9, Ly11, Ly14) and three wild-type family members (Ly8, Ly10, Ly13) extracted at multiple time points. Library preparations were performed with SeqCap EZ Exome v3 (Roche, Switzerland) using six different index primers per sample for which paired-end Illumina sequencing was done with 75bp read length and HiSeq4000 sequencer. After alignment (bwa version 0.7.12), base recalibration (GATK 3.5), realignment around indels (GATK 3.5) and duplicate removal (MarkDuplicates; Picard Tools version 1.79), data from libraries with six different indexes were merged.
Project description:Raw reads from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing library preparations and Illumina sequencing of DNA samples from TET2 mutation carriers (Ly9, Ly11, Ly14, Id1) and their age-matched controls (Ly8, Ly10, Ly13, Id2, Id3) was done as a service at BGI (BGI Tech Solutions Co., Ltd., China). Bisulfite treatment was done with EZ DNA Methylation-Gold Kit (Zymo Research, CA, USA) for 300-400bp size-range fragments with methylated adapters in 5' and 3' ends. Sequencing was done with the HiSeq X-Ten platform using paired-end 150 base-pair read length.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has widely infected more than 90% of human populations. Currently, there is no efficient way to remove the virus because the EBV carriers are usually in a latent stage that allows them to escape the immune system and common antiviral drugs. In the effort to develop an efficient strategy for the removal of the EBV virus, we have shown that betulinic acid (BA) slightly suppresses EBV replication through SOD2 suppression with subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in EBV-transformed LCL (lymphoblastoid cell line) cells. Chidamide (CDM, CS055), a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), could significantly switch EBV from the latent stage to the lytic stage with increased gene expression of BZLF1 and BMRF1, but has a small effect on EBV replication due to the suppression effect of CDM-mediated ROS generation. Interestingly, a combination of BA and CDM synergistically inhibits EBV replication with ROS over-generation and subsequent DNA damage and apoptosis. Overexpression of SOD2 diminishes this effect, while SOD2 knockdown mimics this effect. An in vivo xenograft tumor development study with the tail vein injection of EBV-transformed LCL cells in nude mice proves that the combination of BA and CDM synergistically increases superoxide anion release in tumor tissues and suppresses EBV replication and tumor growth, and significantly prolongs mouse survival. We conclude that the combination of BA and CDM could be an efficient strategy for clinical EBV removal.
Project description:EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with certain malignancies. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) mediates EBV genome replication, partition, and transcription, and is essential for persistence of the viral genome in host cells. Here we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibitors decrease EBNA1 expression and translation, and that this effect requires the Gly-Ala repeat domain of EBNA1. Hsp90 inhibitors induce the death of established, EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines at doses nontoxic to normal cells, and this effect is substantially reversed when lymphoblastoid cell lines are stably infected with a retrovirus expressing a functional EBNA1 mutant lacking the Gly-Ala repeats. Hsp90 inhibitors prevent EBV transformation of primary B cells, and strongly inhibit the growth of EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disease in SCID mice. These results suggest that Hsp90 inhibitors may be particularly effective for treating EBV-induced diseases requiring the continued presence of the viral genome.
Project description:PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Mutations occur in either heritable or sporadic fashion. Sequencing of cDNA from patients and normal individuals often reveals splicing variants (SVs) of PTEN, some of which are non-mutation related. To investigate whether these SVs were the result of illegitimate splicing (a general decrease of fidelity in splicing site selection in "aged" samples), we tested "aged" blood from individuals who had normal PTEN transcripts in their "fresh" mononuclear cells. Blood from 20 normal individuals was collected and split into two aliquots. Total RNA and DNA were extracted immediately ("fresh") and 48 h later ("aged"), respectively. Using RT-PCR, subcloning and sequencing, we found seven types of SVs. No mutation was detected in the related intron-exon flanking region in genomic DNA in either "fresh" or "aged" samples. Some of the SVs were also consistently present in both the "fresh" and "aged" EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from six normal individuals. Western blot data indicated that the PTEN protein level (in full length) was not altered in the "fresh" EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells with SVs. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that PTEN illegitimate splicing often occurs in "aged" blood and EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells. Therefore, it is critical to note the time point of RNA extraction when investigating for PTEN aberrant transcripts. We hope that our data will increase awareness about the sample status, because gene expression data may be potentially flawed from "aged" samples, particularly when dealing with clinical samples.
Project description:Extensive DNA methylation is observed in gastric cancer with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and EBV infection is the cause to induce this extensive hypermethylaton phenotype in gastric epithelial cells. However, some 5' regions of genes do not undergo de novo methylation, despite the induction of methylation in surrounding regions, suggesting the existence of a resistance factor against DNA methylation acquisition. We conducted an RNA-seq analysis of gastric epithelial cells with and without EBV infection and found that TET family genes, especially TET2, were repressed by EBV infection at both mRNA and protein levels. TET2 was found to be downregulated by EBV transcripts, e.g. BARF0 and LMP2A, and also by seven human miRNAs targeting TET2, e.g., miR-93 and miR-29a, which were upregulated by EBV infection, and transfection of which into gastric cells repressed TET2. Hydroxymethylation target genes by TET2 were detected by hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (hMeDIP-seq) with and without TET2 overexpression, and overlapped significantly with methylation target genes in EBV-infected cells. When TET2 was knocked down by shRNA, EBV infection induced de novo methylation more severely, including even higher methylation in methylation-acquired promoters or de novo methylation acquisition in methylation-protected promoters, leading to gene repression. TET2 knockdown alone without EBV infection did not induce de novo DNA methylation. These data suggested that TET2 functions as a resistance factor against DNA methylation in gastric epithelial cells and repression of TET2 contributes to DNA methylation acquisition during EBV infection.
Project description:Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latency and its associated carcinogenesis are regulated by dynamic changes in DNA methylation of both virus and host genomes. We show here that the Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) gene, implicated in hydroxymethylation and active DNA demethylation, is a key regulator of EBV latency type DNA methylation patterning. EBV latency types are defined by DNA methylation patterns that restrict expression of viral latency genes. We show that TET2 mRNA and protein expression correlate with the highly demethylated EBV type III latency program permissive for expression of EBNA2, EBNA3s, and LMP transcripts. We show that shRNA depletion of TET2 results in a decrease in latency gene expression, but can also trigger a switch to lytic gene expression. TET2 depletion results in the loss of hydroxymethylated cytosine, and corresponding increase in cytosine methylation at key regulatory regions on the viral and host genomes. This also corresponded to a loss of RBP-j? binding, and decreased histone H3K4 trimethylation at these sites. Furthermore, we show that the TET2 gene, itself, is regulated similar to the EBV genome. ChIP-Seq revealed that TET2 gene contains EBNA2-dependent RBP-j? and EBF1 binding sites, and is subject to DNA methylation associated transcriptional silencing similar to EBV latency type III genomes. Finally, we provide evidence that TET2 colocalizes with EBNA2-EBF1-RBP-j? binding sites, and can interact with EBNA2 by co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these findings indicate that TET2 gene transcripts are regulated similarly to EBV type III latency genes, and that TET2 protein is a cofactor of EBNA2 and co-regulator of the EBV type III latency program and DNA methylation state..IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latency and carcinogenesis involves the selective epigenetic modification of viral and cellular genes. Here, we show that TET2, a cellular tumor suppressor involved in active DNA demethylation, plays a central role in regulating DNA methylation state during EBV latency. TET2 is coordinately regulated and functionally interacts with the viral oncogene EBNA2. TET2 and EBNA2 function cooperatively to demethylate genes important for EBV-driven B cells growth transformation.
Project description:The actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN1) is a tumor marker that is highly expressed in numerous types of cancer including lymphomas and is important for migration and metastasis of tumor cells. Fascin has also been detected in B lymphocytes that are freshly-infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), however, both the inducers and the mechanisms of Fascin upregulation are still unclear.Here we show that the EBV-encoded oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), a potent regulator of cellular signaling and transformation, is sufficient to induce both Fascin mRNA and protein in lymphocytes. Fascin expression is mainly regulated by LMP1 via the C-terminal activation region 2 (CTAR2). Block of canonical NF-κB signaling using a chemical inhibitor of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) or cotransfection of a dominant-negative inhibitor of IκBα (NFKBIA) reduced not only expression of p100, a classical target of the canonical NF-κB-pathway, but also LMP1-induced Fascin expression. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of IKKβ reduced both Fascin mRNA and protein levels in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, indicating that canonical NF-κB signaling is required for LMP1-mediated regulation of Fascin both in transfected and transformed lymphocytes. Beyond that, chemical inhibition of IKKβ significantly reduced invasive migration of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells through extracellular matrix. Transient transfection experiments revealed that Fascin contributed to LMP1-mediated enhancement of invasive migration through extracellular matrix. While LMP1 enhanced the number of invaded cells, functional knockdown of Fascin by two different small hairpin RNAs resulted in significant reduction of invaded, non-attached cells.Thus, our data show that LMP1-mediated upregulation of Fascin depends on NF-κB and both NF-κB and Fascin contribute to invasive migration of LMP1-expressing lymphocytes.